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Groundhog
14th August 2008, 15:53
Battle of the Yellow Ford<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>


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Fought on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Month="8" Day="14" Year="1598">the 14th August 1598</st1:date> as part of the Irish Nine Years War.<o:p></o:p>
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4000 English troops, many of whom were in fact Irish, marched from <st1:place>Armagh</st1:place> under the command of Henry Bagenal to relieve a fort on the River Blackwater. Opposing the English were the forces of Hugh O’Neill, Hugh O’Donnell and Hugh Maguire. In addition to the Irish troops there were also Scottish mercenaries and Spanish military advisers. The English line of march was a road through hilly, wooded terrain, with boggy valleys. To add to their problems the Irish had dug trenches across the road and thrown up breastworks along it.<o:p></o:p>
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As soon as the march from <st1:place>Armagh</st1:place> began, the Irish started a series of ambushes on the English troops. They became disorganised and contact was lost between groups as they halted to fight off an ambush. An artillery piece became bogged down and the group trying to free it was left behind and the powder wagon blew up when it was ignited by a matchlock fuse. At this point Bagenal was killed by a ball to the head. In the confusion, Irish horse and infantry charged the head of the column which had reached the Yellow Ford and cut them to pieces. The column then turned around and fought its way back to <st1:place>Armagh</st1:place> which was promptly besieged by the Irish. After two days the English evacuated to <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>.<o:p></o:p>
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English casualties were approximately 2000. The Irish lost 200 killed and 600 wounded.<o:p></o:p>
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Not a Lot of People Know This; O’Neill was Bagenal’s brother in law, having eloped with his sister Mabel in the early 1590s. Poor Mabel died within a few years and Bagenal blamed her death on O’Neill who was a rotten husband and a serial philanderer.

Fireplace
14th August 2008, 16:32
Wasn't it the heaviest death toll for a battle in Ireland? For the English that is.

Groundhog
14th August 2008, 18:14
Wasn't it the heaviest death toll for a battle in Ireland? For the English that is.

Aughrim cost the Williamites 3000 dead. But of course Williamites could have been Dutch, English, Irish, Danes or Germans.And many of the "English" dead at Yellow Ford were Irish.

Groundhog
19th August 2008, 18:28
The <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Battle</st1:place></st1:City> of Knockdoe

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The Battle of Knockdoe was fought on <st1:date Year="1504" Day="19" Month="8">19th August 1504</st1:date>. It had no real political significance, being basically a feud between medieval warlords. Yet it was one of the bloodiest battles in Irish history. The fight was between the Gearóid Mór Fitzgerald, who happened to be the King's Deputy, and Ulick Burke, a troublemaker from Clanrickarde, south <st1:place>Galway</st1:place>. Burke or De Burgo wanted to establish himself as lord of all of <st1:place>Connaught</st1:place>. He had attacked and destroyed castles of the O'Kellys - Lords of Ui <st1:State><st1:place>Maine</st1:place></st1:State>, in Monivea, Garbally and Castleblakeney. In addition, Ulick, as Earls will, was living in with O'Kelly's wife. At the same time he was married to Fitzgerald’s daughter, Eustacia, another Casus Belli.
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Siding with Fitzgerald were leading families of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:place>Leinster</st1:place> and <st1:place>Connaught</st1:place>, O’Donnells. O’Connors and Mac Dermotts and the Burkes of Mayo, another branch of the De Burgo family. All joined forces with the Earl of Kildare to put manners on Ulick.<o:p></o:p>
Burke had the support of the chiefs of <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State>, the O’Briens of Thomond, MacNamaras, Kennedys and Carrolls.The last two being names in my family tree. We could never pick a winner. Scottish mercenaries fought on both sides. These lads used battle axes as their main weapon which may have given the hill on which the battle was fought it’s name, Cnoc Tuagh, the Hill of the Axes. In all there were about 10,000 participants, with Burke outnumbered 3 to 2. 1500 of Burkes men died while 1000 died on the Fitzgerald side. The battle lasted all day ending in a victory for the Fitzgeralds. Next day they moved on to <st1:place>Galway</st1:place>, looting <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Claregalway</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> en route and taking hostage two sons and a daughter of Burke.
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Some sources say this was the first battle in Irish history where gunpowder was used. There were huge casualties on both sides and Ulick Burke was defeated after a day's vicious fighting. The Burkes of Clanrickard faded into obscurity for some decades after the battle. Around the summit of Knockdoe are many <st1:City><st1:place>cairns</st1:place></st1:City> where the dead of the battle are buried.One mound is reputed to be the graves of the two sons of O’Brien of Thomond.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
19th August 2008, 19:35
Gearóid Mór Fitzgerald<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
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Gearóid Mór Fitzgerald, born 1456, was the 8th Earl of Kildare, succeeding to the title in 1477. He was also Lord Deputy of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> and the most powerful of the Irish nobles of his generation. His parents were Thomas Fitzgerald, the 7th Earl, and Jane Fitzgerald, daughter of the 6th Earl of Desmond. Fitzgerald was known as Gearóid Mór or the Great Earl.<o:p></o:p>
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The background to Gearóid’s rise to power was the English Wars of the Roses. He was appointed Lord Deputy by Edward IV and retained the title when the Yorkists were crushed and replaced by the Tudor Henry VII in 1485. Despite the fact that he supported a pretender to the throne in the shape of Lambert Simnel, Fitzgerald stayed in power until 1494, when he was denounced for treason by enemies in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, summoned to <st1:City><st1:place>London</st1:place></st1:City> and locked in the Tower. At his trial he convinced Henry he was innocent, returned to <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> in triumph as Lord Deputy again in 1496. In a rampage of sorting out little problems he put down a rebellion in <st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City> in 1500, where he hung the Mayor, and on to <st1:place>Connacht</st1:place> in 1504 where he sorted Clanrickarde et al. On campaign against the O’Carrolls in 1513, Gearóid Mór was mortally wounded and died on September 3rd to be succeeded by his son Gearóid Óg.<o:p></o:p>
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Happily the Fitzgeralds are still with us in the shape of Maurice Fitzgerald, 9th Duke of Leinster.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
22nd August 2008, 21:49
The Battle of Rathmines
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The Battle of Rathmines took place near Dublin on 2nd August 1649. At that time Dublin was one of only two places in Ireland occupied by an English Parliamentary Garrison (the other was Derry). Parliament had lately been the victor in the English Civil War and had executed King Charles I in January. English Royalists in Ireland had proclaimed Charles Stuart as King Charles II in Kinsale and then negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Confederacy which had been in rebellion since 1641. The Confederate armies were commanded by James Butler, Duke of Ormond.<o:p></o:p>
In July Ormond moved his army, 11,000 strong towards Dublin and began occupying it’s outlying villages. The city was of course, far smaller 350 years ago. Ormond took Rathfarnham Castle, Baggotsrath Castle (where Baggot Bridge is today) and Rathgar, where they set up camp in Palmerston Park. <o:p></o:p>
The garrison at Baggotsrath was attacked by the Parliamentary forces commanded by Col Michael Jones on August 2nd and fell back on their camp in Rathgar. The Confederates hadn’t been expecting the Parliamentarians to leave the city and were not in battle formation. Ormond and his commanders committed small forces to battle as a delaying tactic until they could get their main body of troops prepared. Jones’ cavalry however simply outflanked each group and sent them fleeing in disarray in their turn, adding to the confusion. Eventually a large force under Lord Inchquin set up a determined rearguard action and allowed the survivors to retreat. The battle was a disaster for the Royalist cause. They lost 3,000 men killed and another 2000 captured. In addition they lost their artillery and baggage trains. More importantly the victory secured a landing port for the army of Oliver Cromwell.
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Cromwell Lands in Ireland
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Admiral Robert Blake (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Blake_(admiral)) blockaded the Royalist fleet under Prince Rupert of the Rhine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Rupert_of_the_Rhine) in Kinsale (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinsale) and Oliver Cromwell landed at Ringsend on August 15th with a fleet of 35 ships filled with troops and equipment. Henry Ireton landed two days later with a further 77 ships.
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Not a Lot of People Know This; The Bleeding Horse is a pub in Camden St. Legend has it that a wounded horse walked into the tavern on the site during the battle. Hence the name.
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Hedgehog of course will tell me it’s just anmed after any bleedin’ horse.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
25th August 2008, 22:39
Colonel Michael Jones<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

Michael Jones was born about 1608, the second son of Lewis Jones, a Welshman who became Bishop of Killaloe. He trained as a lawyer and was admitted to the King's Inns in Dublin in 1640 but became a soldier in the Earl of Kildare's regiment on the outbreak of the Confederate War (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/confederate-war.htm), rising to the rank of major. As a staunch Protestant, Jones was suspicious of the King's negotiations with the Confederates and refused to fight for the Royalists when the Cessation of Arms was signed in 1643. He defected to the Parliamentarian army and served with Sir William Brereton's forces in Cheshire, participating in the siege of Chester (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/1645-rowton-heath.htm#chester) and the battle of Rowton Heath (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/1645-rowton-heath.htm#rowton) in 1645. Jones was appointed governor of Chester after its surrender in February 1646.
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In April 1647, Jones was appointed governor of Dublin and commander of Parliament's forces in Leinster. Unfortunately for Jones, when he returned to Ireland in June 1647 Dublin was in the hands of the Royalists, luckily for him, the King's lord-lieutenant, the Marquis of Ormond (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/ormond.htm), preferred to surrender the city to Parliament rather than allow it to fall into the hands of the Catholic Confederates. In August, Jones marched relieve Trim, which was besieged by the Confederates under General Thomas Preston (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/preston.htm). Jones won a major victory over Preston on 8th August at Dungan's Hill (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1647-dungans-hill.htm), where the Confederate army of Leinster was virtually annihilated.
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In October 1647, Jones co-operated with Colonel Monck (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/monck.htm), commander of Parliament's Ulster forces, in a bold campaign to drive Owen Roe O'Neill (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oneill.htm) out of northern Leinster and to establish garrisons at strongpoints along the River Boyne. By the end of 1647, they had secured Leinster for Parliament. During 1648, an internal civil war broke out within the Confederacy when Archbishop Rinuccini and Owen Roe O'Neill refused to accept a truce with Lord Inchiquin (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1648-inchiquin-truce.htm). Jones negotiated a separate truce with O'Neill in August 1648 that allowed him to consolidate his control of Dublin and the Pale while the Confederates were preoccupied with their internal struggle. Jones' example of negotiating with O'Neill was followed the following year by Monck at Dundalk and Sir Charles Coote at Londonderry.
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Early in 1649, the Marquis of Ormond succeeded in forming a coalition of Royalist and Confederate forces under the Second Ormond Peace (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-second-ormond-peace.htm). The Ulster Scots also joined the coalition after the execution of King Charles. Ormond was determined to recapture Dublin and initially attempted to persuade Jones to abandon the regicide Parliament and surrender the city. Upon Jones' refusal, Ormond besieged Dublin in June 1649. Jones conducted a vigorous defence that culminated in a spectacular victory over Ormond at the battle of Rathmines (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-rathmines.htm) in August 1649. Jones attempted to follow up his victory by immediately marching against Drogheda but the garrison rejected his summons and he did not have enough forces to besiege or storm the town.
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Jones' victory at Rathmines enabled Cromwell's army to land unopposed in Ireland in mid-August 1649. Appointed lieutenant-general to Cromwell, Jones served on the Irish campaign at the sieges of Drogheda (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-drogheda.htm) and Wexford (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-wexford.htm), where he captured Rosslare. Jones became ill on the march from the unsuccessful siege of Waterford (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-waterford.htm#waterford) in November 1649 and he died of fever in Dungarvan on 10th December. <o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
26th August 2008, 17:58
<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Battle</st1:place></st1:City> of <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Curlew</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Pass</st1:PlaceType></st1:place><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

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Fought on <st1:date Year="1599" Day="15" Month="8">the 15th August 1599</st1:date> as part of the Irish Nine Years War.<o:p></o:p>
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Robert Devereux, Earl of <st1:place>Essex</st1:place> took over as Lord Lieutenant of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> in April 1599. His mission was to subdue the rebellion of the <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> chiefs, now in it’s sixth year. As part of the mission he encouraged one of the Irish Chieftains loyal to the Crown, Donogh O’Connor of Sligo, to push the O’Donnells back out of those parts of his territory they had occupied and strike north to Ballyshannon as a preliminary to an invasion of western Ulster. <o:p></o:p>
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To assist in this invasion a force was despatched from <st1:place>Galway</st1:place> to <st1:place>Sligo</st1:place> commanded by Tibbot na Long Burke. Hugh O’Donnell launched a pre-emptive attack and besieged O’Connor in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Collooney</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, sending 600 men to occupy <st1:place>Sligo</st1:place> town to prevent the English landing. <st1:place>Essex</st1:place> then ordered a force north from Athlone commanded by Conyers Clifford to relieve <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Collooney</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. <o:p></o:p>
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Getting word of the English advance O’Donnell left 300 men besieging the castle and marched south with 1500 troops to Dunavaragh, Co. Roscommon. Here he was joined by a small number of reinforcements under Conor MacDermott and Brian Óg O'Rourke. Ambush sites were prepared at two passes through the Curlew Mountains, along the English line of march. O’Donnell had trees felled and placed along the road to impede the English progress. As soon as the enemy passed through Boyle and headed for the western pass, O’Donnell positioned his troops. Musketeers, archers and javelin men were placed in the woods alongside the road to harass the English while the main body of infantry, armed with pikes and axes, were placed out of sight behind a mountain ridge.<o:p></o:p>
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Meanwhile Clifford’s troops had reached the mountains at 4pm on 15th August. Rather than rest in Boyle, Clifford, believing the pass undefended, decided to press on and cross the mountain that evening. They reached the first barricade between Boyle and Ballinafad where they were attacked by the Irish soldiers. The Irish fired one volley and withdrew but as soona s the English had crossed the barricade they came under immediate harrassing fire from the woods to the side of the road. As they advanced the fire became heavier and heavier until at last the English halted and engaged in a firefight lasting an hour and a half before they ran out of powder. At that moment O’Rourke and his men, who had been stationed at the eastern pass, arrived to reinforce the Irish soldiers. The English broke and fled at this point, although their leader, Alexander Radcliffe, died leading a pike charge against the Irish.<o:p></o:p>
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The retreating soldiers crashed into the main body of English troops causing mayhem in the ranks whereupon the Irish, concealed behind the hill, charged them. In the ensuing melee, the English commander, Clifford, was piked to death. The English fled in disarray, a complete rout being averted by an uphill cavalry charge led by Sir Griffin Markham and his cousin John Harrington. The English were pursued back to Boyle where they sought sanctuary in Boyle Abbey. In all they lost 500 men dead. Clifford’s head was hacked from his body and HugH O’Donnell brought it back to Collooney Castle to encourage O’Connor to surrender, which he did. In addition O’Connor defected from the English camp. With the north west invasion route closed, Essex was left with the option of forcing his way into Ulster through the north east. Instead he agreed a truce with O’Neill and returned to England where he was later tried for treason and executed. His failure in Ireland did not lead directly to his fall from grace but it didn’t help.<o:p></o:p>
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The Curlew Pass was the scene of a second Irish victory in August 1602.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
27th August 2008, 20:34
The Battle of Dungan’s Hill

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In June 1647, the first contingents of the New Model Army landed in Ireland under the command of Colonel Michael Jones. Fresh from it’s victory in the English Civil War, the Westminster Parliament turned its attention to the reconquest of Ireland which had been in rebellion since 1641 and which was under the control of either Irish or Roaylaist rebels. Lenient terms were offered to the Marquis of Ormond for the surrender of Dublin and the city was handed over to Jones on 19th June.

At the beginning of August 1647, Jones left Dublin with 4,000 Infantry and 800 Cavalry to raise the siege of Trim. The Confederate Leinster army under General Preston, besieging the town, lifted their siege and withdrew across the River Boyne, apparently intending to march on Dublin. Preston's force had a strength of 7,000 foot, 1,000 horse and four pieces of artillery. They made slow progress and had advanced no more than ten miles south of Trim when they met Jones’ men, who had been joined on the march by government troops from Drogheda and Dundalk, bringing his army up to around 5,000 foot, 1,500 horse and two field guns.<o:p></o:p>
On August 8th Preston took up a strong defensive position on Dungan's Hill near the modern village of Summerhill, Co. Meath. He deployed his cavalry along a narrow lane to the right of the main body of infantry, apparently intending to charge the Parliamentarians as they formed up at the bottom of the hill where the lane opened out into fields. A reserve of seven troops of horse was posted behind the infantry, which stood in a large cornfield protected by ridges and embankments. On the left of the regular infantry was a force of 800 Gaelic Scots, known as "Redshanks", with skirmishers posted in front of the infantry lines. Further to the left, the Confederate flank was protected by a bog.
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When Jones approached the Confederate position at about 10 am he ordered his cavalry to attack immediately, without waiting for the infantry to deploy. The Parliamentarians reached the opening of the lane first, trapping the Confederate cavalry on Preston's right flank. After suffering a number of casualties, the Confederate cavalry broke through the hedgerow to escape to the comparative safety of the cornfield, but as they did so, they disrupted the formations of infantry in the field. In the ensuing panic, the cavalry was unable to regroup and the reserve fled in confusion.
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With the routing of his cavalry, Preston was forced onto the defensive. As the Parliamentarian infantry advanced, the Redshanks charged downhill. They were beaten off but regrouped and made two more desperate charges. With no discernible movement among the main body of Confederate infantry, Jones concentrated his attack on the Redshanks, who broke through the ranks of the advancing Parliamentarians and made their escape into the bog on the Confederate left flank. After holding off several Parliamentarian assaults, the Confederate infantry began to break formation and attempted to follow the Highlanders by escaping into the bog. With no cavalry and the infantry in full flight, Jones’ horse was able to ride down the fleeing men. Parliamentarian losses were light, at least 3,000 Confederates were killed in the battle and ensuing pursuit. The battle spelled the end of the Leinster army. <o:p></o:p>
The Confederate Supreme Council ordered Owen Roe O’Neill to deploy his men from Connacht to recover Leinster. However, O'Neill's troops mutinied due to lack of pay. By the time order was restored Jones and Monck in Ulster consolidated Parliament’s hold on Leinster by capturing and garrisoning strategic strongpoints around Dublin and in northern Leinster. In November, O'Neill advanced with 8,000 men to within ten miles of Dublin, but heavy rains had turned the roads to mud, making it impossible for him to bring artillery to recover the lost positions. He was forced to withdraw when his supplies ran out. <o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
28th August 2008, 16:11
The Siege of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> 1690<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

<st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> was besieged twice during the Williamite Wars, in August 1690 and again in August 1691. In the history of the city these were actually the third and fourth sieges, the first two had been during the Confederate wars in 1642 and during Cromwell’s campaign in 1651. <o:p></o:p>
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The Siege of 1690 followed on from the <st1:City><st1:place>Battle</st1:place></st1:City> of the <st1:place>Boyne</st1:place> which led to James II fleeing <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> and the Jacobite Army under overall command of the Duke of Tyrconnell withdrawing to the west of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> beyond the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place>. By the end of July about 15,000 troops had gathered at <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> which was a major port and crossing point of the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place>. The defences of the city were poor. In the southern part of the city or Irishtown the walls were all but falling down. A ditch protected by earthworks and a palisade was constructed before the walls and ran from John's Gate round to East Watergate. Some outlying forts were built at strategic points around the walls and the buildings outside of the Irishtown walls were completely leveled to deny any cover to the enemy. John's Gate was particularly well defended, having a strong point known as the Citadel immediately to the north of the gatehouse, and two forts guarding the approaches to the gate. The walls of the English town were stronger and in addition that part of the city was built on an island. <o:p></o:p>
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<st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> was garrisoned mostly by Irish infantry with a small force of cavalry. The commander of the garrison was a French Major-General named Boisseleau. The garrison was severely short of arms, with nearly half of the infantry without muskets. The bulk of the Irish cavalry was posted on the Clare side of the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place> under the Duke of Berwick and Colonel Patrick Sarsfield. <o:p></o:p>
The Williamite army arrived before <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> on <st1:date Year="1690" Day="8" Month="8">8th August 1690</st1:date>. It was about 25,000 strong, William having sent men back to <st1:country-region><st1:place>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> and also having had to leave garrisons at many of the towns captured since the <st1:place>Boyne</st1:place>. Initially, they occupied the high ground at Singland, astride the present <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> and Ballysimon roads, about half a mile from the east wall of the Irishtown. They forced the outlying defenders in the area to withdraw to the main defences of the city. It wasn’t all bad news though as the Irish artillery on the walls were now able to bombard the Williamite forces, forcing them to draw back their encampment to safer ground. <o:p></o:p>
Having established his camp, William, following the protocol of the day, sent a trumpeter to summon the garrison to surrender. The answer was a curt refusal from Boisseleau. William then disposed his forces for a siege. With only 25,000 men available to him, his army was not large enough to invest the city on all sides so he concentrated his attack on the Irish town. Artillery positions were sited opposite the south-eastern part of the city , while the infantry began digging saps, trenches dug towards the walls to enable soldiers to approach them under cover. While his infantry was busy at these preparations, Williams anxiously awaited the arrival of his heavy artillery from <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>.<o:p></o:p>
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Groundhog
28th August 2008, 16:13
The Siege of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> 1690 continued<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

On 10th August a deserter from the Williamite army brought news of the imminent arrival of the siege train. Sarsfield, on a visit from the cavalry camp in Clare, decided to intercept the guns and destroy them. With William's army between <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> and the approaching siege train, Sarsfield had to make a large detour in order to successfully execute his plan. With 500 men, and guided by a local rapparree named Hogan, Sarsfield marched up the Clare side of the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place>, and under cover of darkness crossed the river above Killaloe. The raiding party camped that night near Keeper Hill, and the following morning continued on towards Ballyneety, about two miles south-west of Oola, on the Tipperary/Limerick border. Legend has it that on the way they met a woman camp-follower who gave the password to Sarsfield and that it was his own name. The Williamites were taken completely by surprise when the attack went in that night and the artillery men and their escort were quickly overwhelmed. In the heat of the attack, a number of non-combatants, including some women and children, were also killed. Two of the eight guns of the siege train were completely destroyed, while the other six had their carriages wrecked. A large quantity of ammunition was also lost along with other supplies, including the makings of a pontoon bridge. The attack on the Williamite siege train was a great morale-booster for the garrison of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place>. It made Patrick Sarsfield a legend in Irish history. Unfortunately it merely delayed William's preparations for an assault on the city by another five days while the guns were salvaged at Ballyneety and brought to <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place>
<st1:place></st1:place><o:p></o:p>
The siege began in earnest on 17th August. William's plan was to push the Irish back from their outer defences, while at the same time silencing their guns in preparation for mass assault on a breach which his artillery would make in the walls. The Williamites launched a series of attacks over the next few days on the forts protecting the south-eastern approaches to the Irish town walls. By 20th August they had forced the defenders from three forts and moved the siege artillery closer to the walls in the area of what is now the <st1:Street><st1:address>New Road</st1:address></st1:Street>. After an intense bombardment the wall began to disintegrate, and by the afternoon of 27th August it had been breached to a width of about thirty yards.
<o:p></o:p>
At <st1:time Minute="30" Hour="14">2.30 p.m.</st1:time> the discharge of three artillery pieces gave the signal to attack. The object of the initial assault was the counterscarp, the earthwork glacis protecting the trench before the walls. Once the Irish had been driven from this forward position the way would be clear for a mass attack on the breach itself. Leading the assault were William’s grenadiers - about 500 men. At the signal, they rushed the counter scarp, pushing the Irish defenders out of the. The grenadiers lost the run of themselves and, instead of consolidating, they followed the retreating Irish through the breach and into the city. Inside the walls a defensive line had been built covering the breach. Here the Williamites were met with a withering fire from cannon and muskets. Those that survived were forced back through the breach.
<o:p></o:p>
Meanwhile the main attacking force, consisting of five regiments of infantry, had come up to the attack. They poured through the breach and a furious hand-to-hand fight ensued, during which the ammunition store of the Black Battery, an Irish artillery position on the corner of the wall close to the breach exploded, inflicting severe casualties on the Brandenburg regiment. After more than three hours of hard fighting the Williamites were finally flung back from the walls. During the fighting legend has it that the women of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> joined in repelling the invaders hurling stones and bottles at the retreating Williamites. Plus ca change.
<o:p></o:p>
The battle in the breach, was a costly day for William. An estimated 1,500 Williamites were killed, the defenders lost about 300 killed. The losses were not cathastrophic but William was running short of ammunition. In addition autumn was fast approaching and he feared losing his heavy artillery to an Irish assault and being unable to withdraw it during the winter months. Three days after the battle of the breach, the Williamites struck camp and began a slow withdrawal towards <st1:City><st1:place>Tipperary</st1:place></st1:City>. It was William’s last action of the campaign. Early in September he took ship from <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City> and returned to <st1:country-region><st1:place>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, leaving command of the army to the Dutch general, Ginkel.

Not Many People Know This; Patrick Sarsfield was created Earl of Lucan by James II, a title that died with his son in 1718. In 1795 Sarsfield's great nephew was made Earl of Lucan. His grandson commanded the cavalry division very badly in the Crimea and and his great great graet great grandson was the Lord Lucan who murdered the family nanny before disappearing in 1974.

sofa
28th August 2008, 17:59
Anyone got any details on when the Cork lads defeated Wexford in the 1798 rebellion?

Goldie fish
28th August 2008, 19:18
Sarsfields ride is still a well marked pathway from Athlunkard st, out to the wilderness of Co Clare. I'm told it is best enjoyed on a bicycle...

Groundhog
28th August 2008, 20:10
Sarsfields ride is still a well marked pathway from Athlunkard st, out to the wilderness of Co Clare. I'm told it is best enjoyed on a bicycle...

Comes all the way out to Ballyneety too. I think it's near Cullen that there's sign marking the place where he allegedly met the woman who gave him the password.

The Rapparee who guided Sarsfield was Michael Hogan by the way. He was enshrined in a ballad :biggrin:;


Ballad of the Galloping Hogan
Old Limerick is in danger,
And Ireland is not free;
So Sarsfield sends a message
To a fearless Rapparee--
"Come ride across the Shannon
At the sounding of the drum--
And we'll blow the enemy seige train
To the land of Kingdom Come."

CHORUS
Galloping Hogan, Galloping Hogan
Galloping all along,
In his saddle is a sabre,
On his lips there is a song;
He's off across the Shannon
To destroy the enemy cannon;
And he goes galloping, he goes galloping,
Galloping, galloping on . . .

The Rapparee is bearded,
There's a twinkle in his eye;
As he rides into the city,
The Limerick ladies cry:
"Mr. Outlaw, Mr. Outlaw,
Will you tarry here with me?"
"Och! I'm off to Ballyneety,
To blow up a battery!"

So tonight along the Shannon,
By the pale light of the moon,
There flows an eerie brightness,
As of an Indian noon'
Then clippody-clop resounding
Through the lattice of the shade,
The ghost of Galloping Hogan
Goes a-riding down the glade.

The word rapparee came to mean an outlaw and was derived from the Irish Rápaire, a short pike.

There's also a reel called The Walls of Limerick.

Goldie fish
28th August 2008, 20:32
Oh the walls of limerick... traumatised by being dragged into it at too many family weddings(mothers people are Limerick folk)

Groundhog
28th August 2008, 20:42
Oh the walls of limerick... traumatised by being dragged into it at too many family weddings(mothers people are Limerick folk)

That could be the Siege of Ennis, never to be attempted (again) after a pint of Vodka.:biggrin:

Goldie fish
28th August 2008, 20:44
No, the Siege of ennis is a whole other cluster****.

Groundhog
28th August 2008, 21:30
The Siege of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> 1691<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

1691 was a black year for the Irish Jacobites. At the start of the campaigning season Godert de Ginkel, the Williamite commander, decided to force the line of the River Shannon. He captured Athlone and brought the Irish Army to battle at Aughrim where they were decisively beaten with heavy losses. Soon after that <st1:place>Galway</st1:place> fell, leaving <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> as the last Jacobite position in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. In addition, the Jacobite commander, General St Ruth, a Frenchman of high caliber appointed in May, was killed at Aughrim, the Earl of Tyrconnell died suddenly of suspected poisoning and Brigadier Henry Luttrell was court martialled for corresponding with the enemy. The portents did not bode well when Ginkel arrived before the walls of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> on <st1:date Month="8" Day="25" Year="1691">August 25th 1691</st1:date>.
<o:p></o:p>
Mind you things didn’t look well for Ginkel either. He commanded fewer men that William had, 12 months previously. The defences of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> had been strengthened, the breach of 1690 closed up and probably there were female reinforcements in town. And the summer was drawing to a close. His men would suffer in the open through an Irish autumn and winter while the roads would be impassable.
<o:p></o:p>
The second siege of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> also started on the Irishtown side of the city. Once again the Irish did not defend their outlying positions with any great enthusiasm. By the end of day one the defenders were driven back behind the city walss. The Williamites began to set up camp, this time further to the west near the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place> where they were close to an English fleet in the river. From this position the Englishtown could also be bombarded. The siege artillery arrived on August 26th but it took 4 days to get a batteryinto place where it began to bombard <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Thomond</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and King John’s Castle. In the meantime the infantry had been busy building a defensive line from Singland ridge to the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place>. The bombardment went on for a fortnight, with the artillery concentrating on the Irishtown. However Ginkel, with fresh memories of the slaughter in the breach of 1690, made no move to take the city by storm.
<o:p></o:p>
In the first week of September Ginkel switched operations to the walls of the Englishtown, having received information that the walls facing the <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Abbey</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> were not strong. A battery was placed across the river north of present-day O'Dwyer Bridge by the 8th of September. This battery was made up of 24-pound and 18-pound siege guns plus some heavy mortars as well. Within a few hours it had made a breach in the Englishtown wall where it skirted the present-day <st1:Street><st1:address>Island Road</st1:address></st1:Street>. The Williamites began to assemble boats to be used to transport an assault force across the river. On the night of the 9th of September a raiding party crossed over from King's <st1:place>Island</st1:place> and destroyed many of them. The artillery continued to bombard the wall and within two days the breach had been widened to about forty yards. No attempt was made to assault the breach though, Ginkel being conscious of the difficulties and dangers involved in an attack across water on a defended breach. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
28th August 2008, 21:31
The Siege of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> 1691 continued<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

On the evening to 15th of September a large party of Williamites began constructing a pontoon brige at Lanahrone just upstream of the present-day <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Athlunkard</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. By morning the bridge was completed and the Williamites had crossed over to secure the Clare bank. The Irish cavalry made no attempt to stop the Williamites until it was too late. The Williamites were now in a position to bockade <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place>. However, Ginkel was hopful that this might not be necessary and that the garrison might be induced to surrender. Consequently on 16th September he offered generous surrender terms to the garrison to be accepted within eight days.

Ginkel however didn’t wait for a reply. The following day he decided to exploit the bridgehead on the north bank. This strategy was not without danger, as the Irish could switch their infantry from one end of <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> to the other in a short space of time, and could sally forth from the town to attack weak points in the siege line. Ginkel took elaborate precautions to counter this threat and the field defences facing the Irishtown were stengthened, with an artillery battery established near Singland where it could cover a sally from John's Gate. By 22nd September Ginkel’s preparations for an attack across the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place> were complete, including moving the pontoon bridge about half a mile downstream.
<o:p></o:p>
Ginkel committed 10 regiments of infantry to the attack as well as most of his cavalry and dragoons. By the afternoon of September 22nd this force had crossed into Clare, swung left around the bend of the <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place> and made its way towards the Irish outer defences covering the approaches to <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Thomond</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Despite being reinforced from the city the Irish were forced back after a sharp fight. The defenders fled towards <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Thomond </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and the safety of the Englishtown. Unfortunately, the Williamite pursuit was so close that the French officer in command of the drawbrige was compelled to raise it lest the Williamites enter the city. A large number of Irish were trapped on the bridge and slaughtered. Those who were not butchered by the Wiliamites were forced into the river. The Irish lost about 600 men of whom about a quarter were drowned.
<o:p></o:p>
That night the Garrison commanders decided to surrender amidst much acrimony between the Irish and the French. On September 23rd the two sides agreed a truce and negotiated the Treaty of Limerick which was signed on <st1:date Month="10" Day="3" Year="1691">3rd October 1691</st1:date>. The last of the Jacobites sailed from <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> at the end of October bringing an end to what was virtually a century of warfare in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.<o:p></o:p>

passerby
28th August 2008, 23:04
Another song about the action at Ballyneety (no responsibility taken for the obvious errors contained in it!) is called "Ballyneety's Walls":

The night fell dark round Limerick, and everything was still.
It was for the foe in ambush we lay beside the hill.
Like lions bold we waited, to dash upon our prey,
As we rode with Sarsfield at our head, at the dawning of the day.

From Dublin came the foemen, with guns and warlike store,
But to take the town of Limerick they wanted ten times more.
For little was their dreaming that we would be their doom,
As we rode with Sarsfield at our head, right down from wild Slieve Bloom.

At the lonely hour of midnight each man leaped on his steed,
And through the town of Cullen we dashed with lightning speed.
And o'er the hills we thundered to Ballyneety's walls,
Where lay the foe securely, with guns and arms and all.

When they asked us for the password, well Sarsfield was the man.
"And here I am", our General cried, as down on them we ran.
Then God, he cleared the firmament, so the moon and stars gave light,
And for the Battle of the Boyne we got revenge that night.

Loud laughed our gallant General as fast we rode away,
And many a health was drank to him in Limerick town next day.
Here's another health to Sarsfield, who led us, one and all.
We blew up the Royal Artillery and Ballyneety's walls.

clean it again
29th August 2008, 09:48
Very good reading
where could i get my hands on books about this subject

Groundhog
29th August 2008, 11:08
Very good reading
where could i get my hands on books about this subject

http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51Tl8wp%2B9AL._SL500_AA240_.jpg

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Irish-Battles-Military-History-Ireland/dp/0862812127/ref=sr_1_1/203-9372694-5505502?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1220004387&sr=8-1

http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/5123JQZ18QL._SL500_AA240_.jpg

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Confederate-Catholics-1641-1649-Studies-History/dp/1859182445/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1220004481&sr=1-1

The Cosantoir did a series on Irish battles way back when it was an interesting publication.

Fireplace
29th August 2008, 14:18
This UCC site has plenty of old documents taking in much of Irish history.

http://celt.ucc.ie/englist.html

Groundhog
29th August 2008, 20:20
The Battle of Castlebar

The long overdue French landing to assist the 1798 rebellion took place on 22nd August 1798. General (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_officer)Jean Joseph Humbert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Joseph_Amable_Humbert) landed at Cill Chuimín Strand, County Mayo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Mayo) with almost 1,100 men and procliamed the formation of the Republic of Connaught. The landing was unopposed because all the government forces were concentrated in Leinster, the focus of the rebellion. The French quickly captured Killala (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killala) after a brief resistance by the local yeoman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeomen)ry and Ballina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballina,_County_Mayo) was taken on the 24th. Following the news of the French landing, Irish volunteers began to trickle into the French camp from all over Mayo.

<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Lieutenant_of_Ireland), Lord Cornwallis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Cornwallis,_1st_Marquess_Cornwallis), concentrated all available forces at Castlebar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castlebar) under the command of General Gerard Lake (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_Lake,_1st_Viscount_Lake). Lake had been the commander at Vinegar Hill in June. By the morning of 27th August the British forces at Castlebar had reached 6,000 soldiers with artillery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artillery) and plentiful supplies. Humbert left 200 French soldiers in Killala (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killala) to cover his line of withdrawal and advanced on Castlebar on August 26th with a combined force of about 2,000 French troops and Irish rebels.
<o:p></o:p>
Lake assumed that Humbert would advance along the Ballina road and he deployed his forces to cover the expected French advance from that direction. However, local rebels had told Humbert of an alternative route to Castlebar along the west shore of Lough Conn (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lough_Conn), a route the British thought impassable for a conventional force. When Lake’s scouts spotted the approaching enemy, the surprised British had to hurriedly change their deployment to face the new threat.

<o:p></o:p>
The British had just completed redeploying their troops when the Franco-Irish army appeared outside Castlebar at 6 am. The British artillery immediately opened up on the advancing French and Irish and cut them down in substantial numbers. However as luck would have it in front of the British line was a gully which allowed an approach to the British position under cover. From here the French launched a bayonet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayonet) charge.
<o:p></o:p>
Behind the artillery was the British infantry line made up mostly of militia units. Unnerved by the French charge the infantry broke and ran in both directions. Some of the Longford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longford) and Kilkenny (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilkenny) militia ran to join the rebels. The fleeing troops overwhelmed a unit of cavalry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavalry) and British regular infantry who attempted to stand and stem the tide. The French broke off the pursuit a mile or two beyond Castlebar, but the broken troops continued to flee, some as far as Tuam and Athlone. Massive quantities of guns and equipment were abandoned, including General Lake’s personal luggage. The rout has gone down in Irish history as the Races of Castlebar.
<o:p></o:p>
The Franco-Irish lost about 150 men in the battle, mostly to the British artillery. The government side lost 350, including 150 defectors and 80 killed.<o:p></o:p>

Not Many People Know This; Humbert was later suspected of treason by Napoleon and he fled France for America. As an American soldier he fought the British in Louisiana in the War of 1812.

Groundhog
29th August 2008, 21:36
Béal na Bláth<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
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<o:p></o:p>
<o:p>Béal na </o:p>Bláth was an ambush that nearly didn’t happen. It’s probably the most famous event in <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> after the 1916 Rising, a tribute in itself to the only man to die in this battle, who was of course Michael Collins.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
Collins was on a tour of <st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City> when he passed through the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Béal</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> na Bláth on his way to Bandon on the morning of <st1:date Month="8" Day="22" Year="1922">August 22nd 1922</st1:date>. The local IRA commander, Liam Deasy decided to lay an ambush on the road in case the convoy returned by the same route. The ambush was set up on a bend in the road south of the village about <st1:time Hour="12" Minute="0">noon</st1:time>. The road was blocked with a brewery cart and a mine, consisting of a metal box of gelignite, laid in the road. The ambush party had a strength of about 25 men but 10 of them left the ambush site in the afternoon. About <st1:time Hour="19" Minute="0">7pm</st1:time> Deasy returned to the ambush site from his HQ and ordered the ambush commander Tom Hales to pull out as they thought the convoy would not return at this stage. Most of the men were ordered to withdraw north along the road while one section covered the ambush site from Position A on the map. Two men dug up the mine and a small group dismantled the barricade.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
Collins convoy left Bandon about <st1:time Hour="19" Minute="0">7 pm</st1:time> also. The convoy consisted of a motor cycle out-rider in front, a Crossley tender with a party of troops in the back as escort, then Collins car with a driver, Collins himself and Emmet Dalton. In the rear was an armoured car. At about <st1:time Hour="19" Minute="30">7.30 pm</st1:time>, as they neared the ambush site the covering party opened fire more to warn those on the road than anything else. A few seconds later the convoy passed a small group at Position B (part of the covering party) who opened fire on the convoy from a range of 35 yards. Collins, <st1:City><st1:place>Dalton</st1:place></st1:City> and the driver of the car took cover behind an earth bank and returned fire. They were joined by Captain Dolan who had been riding on the back of the armoured car.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
The troops in the Crossley dismounted and began to return fire on the men in the boreen who had now been joined by the two men who had been dismantling the mine. These men immediately withdrew along Walsh’s Lane. Collins and his group with the armoured cars machine gun pinned down the dozen men behind the stone wall at Position B. After firing 400 rounds the MG jammed and this group also withdrew along Walsh’s Lane. This action took about 20 minutes. By this time Collins had moved behind the armoured car from where he fired occasionally at the withdrawing IRA men. He then moved a further 15 yards along the earth bank out of sight of his comrades. <st1:City><st1:place>Dalton</st1:place></st1:City> moved towards his position when he heard firing cease from there and found Collins lying dead in a firing position.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
The troops almost immediately loaded the body of their dead commander and another wounded officer into the car and the convoy moved to the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Crookstown</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> where they stopped and demanded of a local man that he bring them to a priest and a doctor. The man brought the convoy to <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Cloughduve</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Church</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> where the curate a Fr. Murphy gave Collins absolution. The convoy then spent all night making its way to Cork city, sometimes cross country because the IRA had trenched the roads and blown the bridges. From Cork Collins was brought by sea to <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> and he was buried in Glasnevin cemetery.

http://i95.photobucket.com/albums/l151/md24124549/bealnablath.jpg<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
3rd September 2008, 18:57
The Battle of Ballinamuck

Fought September 8th 1798 as part of the 1798 Rebellion.

After the Battle of Castlebar, Gen. Humbert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Joseph_Amable_Humbert) marched towards Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster) on the night of September 3rd with the intention of fomenting another rising there. His Franco-Irish troops covered 56 miles in 36 hours. He was faced with a small force of British at Collooney (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collooney) Co. Sligo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Sligo) on September 5th, which he defeated easily. Then, hearing that rebellion had broken out in Westmeath (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westmeath) and Longford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longford), he changed direction and began an advance on Dublin. Humbert crossed the Shannon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Shannon) at Ballintra on 7th September (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_7) 1798 and halted at Cloone, halfway between Killala and Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin), that night. He attempted to demolish the bridge at Ballintra but was unsuccessful. News reached him of the defeat of the Westmeath (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westmeath) and Longford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longford) rebels at Wilson’s Hospital (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wilsons_Hospital&action=edit&redlink=1) and Granard (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granard) from the trickle of rebels who had survived the battles and reached his camp. Meanwhile Lord Cornwalli (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Cornwallis,_1st_Marquess_Cornwallis)s with a force of 15,000 men had blocked the road to Dublin. With Lake in his rear with 14,000 men, Humbert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Joseph_Amable_Humbert) decided to make a stand the next day on the Longford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longford)/Leitrim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leitrim) border in the townland of Ballinamuck.
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The battle began with a short artillery duel followed by a charge by Cornwallis’ dragoon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragoon)s on the Irish rebel contingent. After a brief struggle in the French lines Humbert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Joseph_Amable_Humbert) signalled his intention to surrender and his officers ordered their men to lay down their muskets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskets). The battle lasted about half an hour. Meanwhile the 1,000 or so Irish under Colonel Teeling (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomew_Teeling), an Irish officer in the French army, held onto their arms refusing to surrender, in the knowledge that they would be executed anyway. An attack by infantry followed by a dragoon charge broke and scattered the Irish who were pursued and slaughtered by the cavalry. The dead were buried in a mass grave known as Croppy’s Acre on Shanmullagh Hill. The spot is marked by a commemorative stone.
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17 French soldiers were killed in the brief battle while 96 French officers and 748 men surrendered. Humbert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Joseph_Amable_Humbert) and his men were transported by canal to Dublin and repatriated to France. British losses were 12 killed and 16 wounded or missing. Approximately 500 Irish lay dead on the field, 200 prisoners were taken in the mopping up operations. The prisoners were moved to Ballinalee near Carrick-on-Shannon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrick-on-Shannon) most were executed in a spot called Bully’s Acre (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullys_Acre). Wolfe Tone’s brother Matthew and General George Blake from Mayo, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Insurgent Battalions, were amongst them.
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In the aftermath of the rebellion the government forces re-occupied Mayo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Mayo) in a brutal campaign which reached its climax on 23rd September when Killala (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killala) was retaken.

Not many people know this; The President of Connaught was John Moore from Mayo. Captured at Killala, he was sentenced to transportation in 1799. He died in the Royal Oak Tavern in Waterford en route to Fort Duncannon on 6th December 1799. He was buried in Ballygunner cemetery. In 1960 his burial place was found accidentally and President Morre was reinterred in Castlebar with full military honours on 13th August 1961.

greyfox
17th September 2008, 19:28
excellent tread ,,, does any one know if any publication gave the names of the Free state soldiers attached to collins convoy at beal na blath ?

Groundhog
18th September 2008, 19:39
excellent tread ,,, does any one know if any publication gave the names of the Free state soldiers attached to collins convoy at beal na blath ?

One of the plethora of books on the ambush probably does. Undoubtedly tehre's a large file in Military Archives on the subject. It would make interesting reading.

Groundhog
18th September 2008, 19:40
The Siege Of Drogheda<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

The siege took place during the Confederate Wars in the second week of September 1649.<o:p></o:p>
Having landed in Ireland in August 1649 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1649), to re-conquer the country on behalf of the English Parliament (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Parliament), Oliver Cromwell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell) moved north to Drogheda in September. The town was garrisoned by an English Royalist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavaliers_(royalists)) regiment under Col Arthur Aston (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Aston_(army_officer)) and Irish Confederate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland) troops. The garrison had a total strength of about 3100 men, roughly half English, half Irish. Cromwell had around 12,000 men at Drogheda and eleven 48-pounder artillery pieces. Cromwell however didn’t want to go through the lengthy process of blockading the townand forcing a surrender so he opted for a direct assault (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assault). He positioned his forces on the south side of the river Boyne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Boyne) concentrated for the assault.<o:p></o:p>
On Monday 10th September Cromwell had a letter delivered to Aston, calling him too surrender the town. Aston refused to surrender so Cromwell ordered his artillery to begin the bombardment of the town. The Parliamentarian batteries were situated on the south side of Drogheda. The first battery was aimed at the southern wall between the Duleek Gate and St Mary's Church, whose tower was used as an observation post by the Royalists. The second battery was placed to the east of St Mary's to fire across a ravine which ran along the eastern wall. The batteries were placed so that the breaches they made would allow the two columns of assault troops to converge in the south-eastern corner of the town and mutually support one another once they had gained entry. Aston ordered the construction of additional defensive earthworks when he realised where Cromwell intended to concentrate his fire.<o:p></o:p>
The cannon quickly battered two large breaches in the town's medieval walls and Cromwell ordered his troops to assault the breaches at 5 pm on September 11th (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11th). The regiments of Colonel Castle and Colonel Ewer (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/ewer.htm) attacked the southern breach while Colonel Hewson (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/hewson.htm)'s regiment drew te short straw and had to attack across the ravine and into the eastern breach.<o:p></o:p>
Hewson's men met with fierce resistance in the eastern breach. Their first assault was thrown back and they began to retreat back down the ravine. The regiments of Colonel Venables (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/venables.htm) and Colonel Phayre came up in support and the Parliamentarians succeeded in forcing their way into the town. The assault on the southern breach also met with heavy resistance. Colonel Castle was shot in the head and killed during a Royalist counter-attack and his men began to retreat. Cromwell himself moved into the breach to rally the wavering men. At this stage the tide turned and the Royalist commander in the breach, Colonel Wall was killed. The defenders fell back as the Parliamentarians poured through the breaches and overran the Royalist defences. <o:p></o:p>
The soldiers of the New Model Army pursued the defenders through the streets, killing them as they ran. Aston and about 200 men barricaded themselves into Millmount Fort (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millmount_Fort), which overlooked the town's eastern gate. This fort held out while the rest of the town was being sacked but eventually it too fell and the defenders were put to the sword. Another group of soldiers holed up in St Peter’s church, at the northern end of Drogheda. They were burned to death when the Parliamentarian soldiers set fire to the Church. About 200 of the garrison survived the assault on Drogheda. They were transported as slaves to Barbados, which for Europeans in the 17th century was virtually a death sentence. Estimates of civilian casualties vary from several hundred to several thousand. In Irish history the siege has gone down as a Cromwellian massacre, making Oliver one of the most hated men in history. 150 Parliamentarians died in the assault.<o:p></o:p>
After the fall of Drogheda, the Royalists abandoned the towns of Trim and Dundalk without a fight. Cromwell sent three regiments under Colonel Venables north to join forces with Sir Charles Coote in Ulster while he returned to Dublin with the main body of his army and prepared to advance into southern Ireland. <o:p></o:p>
Not a lot of people know this; Aston was reputedly beaten to death with his own wooden leg when the Parliamentarians took the Mill Mount.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
19th September 2008, 22:13
The Battle of Moyry Pass



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A battle fought as part of the Nine Years War. It began on September 20th and was fought intermittently for several weeks.

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Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, had been appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1600, with the task of bringing the Irish rebellion to an end. With this in mind he first landed forces from the sea at Derry in the north and Carrickfergus in the east and then began an overland invasion of the O'Neill lands in central and western Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster). The shortest way to Ulster was through the Moyry pass on the road from Dundalk to Newry and Armagh. Early in September Mountjoy moved from Dublin to Dundalk with the intention of re-establishing a garrison in Armagh, evacuated after the Yellow Ford in two years previously.

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On 17th September (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_17) Mountjoy marched from Dundalk towards the Moyry Pass which had been fortified by O'Neill with trenches and barricades. The Irish had constructed three lines of trenches, backed up with barricades of earth and stone in the pass and on the flanks had made further earth and stone works to provide cover for themselves and prevent the English occupying the heights on either side of the Pass. In these positions, they awaited the English assault.

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The English force reached the pass on 20th September (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_20) and set up camp at the southern entrance on Faughart Hill. On the 25th, an officer named Thomas Williams (who had commanded the Blackwater Fort during the Battle of the Yellow Ford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Yellow_Ford)) made a sortie into the pass, under cover of a heavy mist. He found the Irish defensive works and engaged ina skirmish before returning to camp with 12 dead and 30 wounded. Heavy rain prevented fighting for the next week, until the weather cleared on 2nd October (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_2), when Sir Samuel Bagnall led his regiment of infantry into the Pass followed by four other regiments. Bagnall’s men breached the first barricade and then Thomas Bourke's regiment took over the attack on the second and third lines of defence. Once the second line was crossed the English troops found themselves trapped under fire from three sides. For three hours they tried to dislodge the Irish from their remaining positions before retreating with the loss of at least 46 killed and 120 wounded.
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On 5th October (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_5), Mountjoy tried unsuccessfully to bypass Moyry by sending two regiments over the hills to the west of the Pass. In addition he sent a regiment supported by horsemen into the Pass. Again this force was thrown back with reported losses of 50 dead and 200 wounded. Mountjoy retired to Dundalk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dundalk) on the 8th of October.

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However, on the 14th, he received word that O'Neill had abandoned the Pass and retreated to Lough Lurcan (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lough_Lurcan&action=edit&redlink=1). O'Neill's withdrawal was probably due to a shortage of ammunition and food and fear of an attack on his rear from Newry. Mountjoy marched into Moyry Pass unopposed on the 17th of October and dismantled the Irish earthworks. He then marched on to Carrickban (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carrickban&action=edit&redlink=1), outside Newry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newry). After a stay at Carrickban, Mountjoy marched to Mountnorris (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountnorris), which he reached on Sunday 2nd November (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_2). There he built an earthwork fort garrisoned by 400 men under the command of Captain Edward Blaney. Returning to Newry from Mountnorris, the English marched back to Dundalk via Carlingford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlingford,_County_Louth). On 13th November (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_13), during this return march they were again attacked by O'Neill, close to the Fathom Pass, losing 20 men killed and 60 to 80 wounded.

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Mountjoy claimed to have lost 200 men killed and 400 wounded in the battle for Moyry Pass as well as claiming to have killed over a thousand Irish. Historians think he dramatically understated his own losses and inflated those of O’Neill.

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Moyry Pass has frequently been a strategic site in Irish history. Edward Bruce was killed there in 1318 and the Jacobites and Williamites fought a short battle there in 1690 before the Boyne.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
1st October 2008, 13:11
The Siege Of Wexford
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After the fall of Drogheda, the Royalist (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/ormond.htm) army under the Marquis of Ormond withdrew from most of Leinster. Ormond retreated to Kilkenny with his remaining forces, abandoning Trim and Dundalk. Cromwell, with the north-western approaches to Dublin secure, turned south while Colonel Venables advanced into Ulster. Cromwell wanted to capture the southern ports before the onset of winter in order to cut the Royalist lines of communication with France and Spain.
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Cromwell's first objective was Wexford, a major port and a base for privateering raids on English shipping. Cromwell left Dublin on 23rd September and marched down the coast. A support fleet of twenty ships under the command of General-at-Sea Richard Deane shadowed his march with supplies and siege artillery.

Cromwell's army was now reduced to 9,000 men, three regiments accompanying Venables into Ulster and garrisons having been posted in Dublin and Drogheda. Apart from a Confederate raid south of Arklow, the Parliamentarians met with no resistance on the march south. Royalist garrisons at Arklow, Ferns and Enniscorthy surrendered and the Cromwell’s army arrived at Wexford on 1st October 1649.
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Ormond had reinforced the garrison of Wexford with 1,000 men under the command of Colonel David Sinnott. A force also moved from Kilkenny to New Ross in order to protect Wexford's supply lines. Wexford is situated on the south side of the River Slaney. Its harbour is sheltered by two fingers of land to the north and south and at that time it was guarded by Rosslare Fort on the southern side. Cromwell crossed the Slaney at Enniscorthy and approached Wexford from the south. The speed of his advance took the garrison of Wexford by surprise and the Rosslare garrison, unprepared for an attack, abandoned the fort on 2nd October. Lt-Gen Michael Jones (recently rampging around Dublin and Rathmines) captured the fort without firing a shot. With Rosslare in Parliamentarian hands, Cromwell's support fleet was able to enter Wexford Bay in safety and unload the siege artillery on the south side of the town. Cromwell set up his batteries to concentrate their fire on Wexford Castle which dominated the south-eastern corner of the defences and which overlooked part of the town wall.
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With his forces in place, Cromwell demanded the surrender of Wexford on 3rd October, offering lenient terms in the hope that he could secure the town intact and use it as winter quarters for his troops. The citizens of the town were anxious to surrender but Sinnott played for time. He knew that a winter siege would be hard on the Parliamentarians and that disease and exposure would lift the siege and fatally weaken Cromwell’s army. Meanwhile Ormond sent another 1,000 infantrymen to Wexford to strengthen the garrison. One drawback for the Royalists was the fall of Youghal when the Protestants of the town declared for Parliament. Ormond sent Lord Inchiquin with a regiment of cavalry to reoccupy the town, weakening his army at New Ross.
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Meanwhile negotiations between Cromwell and Sinnott continued until 10th October at which point Cromwell's patience ran out and he ordered his artillery to begin bombarding the walls of Wexford Castle. The following day, Sinnott agreed to accept Cromwell's terms, by which the soldiers of the garrison would be disarmed and allowed to march away, the officers would become prisoners and the town would not be plundered. A delegation was sent to meet Cromwell to finalise the surrender. This delegation presented a further set of proposals to him for negotiation. seeking protection of the town's Catholic clergy, that the garrison be allowed to withdraw to New Ross with all their weapons and ammunition and that the privateers of Wexford could sail away with their goods and ships intact. Cromwell refused and negotiations broke down. All the while the Parliamentarian artillery continued to bombard Wexford Castle. By the afternoon of 11th, the guns had succeeded in opening two wide breaches in the castle wall. The commander of the castle, a Captain Stafford, agreed to surrender before an assault could be launched. Cromwell's troops occupied the castle battlements and turned its guns on the town whereupon, the Royalists guarding the south wall fled. The Parliamentarians launched an immediate attack, scaling the abandoned walls, opening the gates and storming into the town.
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The Royalists attempted to make a stand in the market square, but they were quickly overwhelmed, Colonel Sinnott being among those killed. As at Drogheda, Cromwell and his officers made no attempt to restrain the soldiers, who slaughtered the defenders and citizens of Wexford alike and plundered the town. Hundreds of civilians were shot or drowned as they tried to escape the carnage by fleeing across the River Slaney. Cromwell expressed no remorse for the massacre in his report to Parliament. He justified it as a reward for Sinnott’s intransigience during the negotiations and regarded it as a judgment upon the perpetrators of the Catholic uprising of 1641 and upon the pirates who had operated out of Wexford harbour. His principal regret was that the town was so badly damaged that it was no longer suitable as winter quarters for the Parliamentarian army.
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The loss of Wexford was a major blow to the Royalist-Confederate coalition. Around 2,000 Royalist soldiers were killed or fled, reducing Ormond's field army to less than 3,000 men, for the loss of between twenty and thirty Parliamentarians. Cromwell captured ships, artillery, ammunition and tons of supplies and a harbour to be used as a naval base in southern Ireland where further supplies from southern England could be received. The Irish privateering fleet was broken up, leaving Prince Rupert's small squadron at Kinsale as the only potential threat to Cromwell's ships and supply lines. Shortly after the fall of Wexford, Rupert broke out of Kinsale and escaped to Portugal.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
13th October 2008, 16:27
The Battle of Faughart



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Also known as the Battle of Dundalk, it was fought on October 14 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_14)th 1318 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1318). It was a battle of the War of Scottish Independence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_War_of_Scottish_Independence) and the Irish Bruce Wars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Bruce_Wars_1315-1318).
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Robert Bruce, you’ll remember him as the conniving back-stabber from Braveheart, had defeated the English army of Edward II (the gay Prince of Wales) in 1314. However the gay Prince of Wales, now the gay King of England, like all those psychotic Anglo-Norman bstards never knew when to call it a day and the war was still ongoing, if at a stalemate. Robert, now King of the Scots, decided to open a second front in Ireland. To this end he sent letters and emissaries to the Gaelic chieftains of Ulster calling for a pan-Celtic alliance against the Sassenach and so on. Whenever you get someone suggesting a bad idea like subprime mortgage lending or going to war with the Brits, you’ll always get a taker. In 1315 it was Domhnal O'Neil, king of Tyrone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrone), who took up Bruce’s offer and offering in return the High Kingship of Ireland to Robert’s brother, Edward Bruce. The fact that Domhnal didn’t have any say in who became High King seemed irrelevant, rather like the ability of someone to repay his mortgage is irrelevant to an American mortgage broker.
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Anyway back to the Middle Ages. Edward landed with a Scottish army at Larne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larne) in 1315 and was joined by a number of local chieftains. They had some early successes against the Norman-Anglo-Irish aristocracy. Bruce won his first engagement at Moyry Pass and sacked Dundalk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dundalk) on 29th June. He defeated Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Og_de_Burgh,_2nd_Earl_of_Ulster) at the Battle of Connor in Antrim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Antrim) on 10th September. De Burgh was actually Robert Bruce’s father in law so they were keeping it in the family so to speak. On 1st Feb 1316 he defeated Edmund Butler, Justiciar of Ireland, at the Battle of Skerries. Edward Bruce was crowned High King of Ireland on 2nd May 1316. The Kingship was all pie in the sky however. His writ ran only in Ulster. In addition, the weather in 1316 was bad and the harvest failed. The peasants were starving and Bruce’s lads had to rob them of their food to support the army. Edward Bruce was as popular as a Fianna Fail budget during a global recession. Things picked up in 1318 and following the harvest Bruce decided to march south and kill a few more Englishmen. He marched through the Moyry Pass which was the only road out of south east Ulster and ended up on Faughart Hill near Dundalk facing an English host marching north. The Ulstermen were a tad nervous at the sight of the English army so Bruce placed them at the top of the hill with his 2,000 Scottish troops in the front line. Edward was supposed to have marced south without waiting for reinforcement from Scotland. If he did, he paid the price.
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The English forces were led by John de Birmingham (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_de_Birmingham&action=edit&redlink=1), Edmund Butler (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edmund_Butler&action=edit&redlink=1) and Roland Joyce (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roland_Joyce&action=edit&redlink=1), Archbishop of Armagh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbishop_of_Armagh_(Roman_Catholic)). According to Medieval accounts the Scots attacked the English in 3 columns which were too far apart to be able to support each other. The English defeated the Scots piecemeal. Bruce himslef fell in the battle and he was beheaded, his head being sent to Edward in London and his body interred in Faughart graveyard where a stone slab reputedly marks his burial place. The Scots-Ulster army was dispersed with unknown casualties. Carrickfergus Castle was recaptured on 2nd December by John de Birmingham who was created Earl of Louth by his grateful king.<o:p></o:p>

The passing of Edward Bruce was greeted with relief in Ireland. The Annals of Loch Ce noted that Bruce:<o:p></o:p>
was the common ruin of the Gaels and Galls of Ireland...never was a better deed done for the Irish than this...For in this Bruce's time, for three years and a half, falsehood and famine and homicide filled the country, and undoubtedly men ate each other in Ireland.
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Plus ca change.
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Not many people know this; According to legend Faughart Hill is also the site of the death of Chucullain.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
14th October 2008, 19:14
Cromwell’s Campaign in the South East Oct-Dec 1649
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The Fall of New Ross
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Immediately after the capture of Wexford, Cromwell turned his attention westwards. He left Col Cooke and his regiment to garrison Wexford and sent Ireton to take Duncannon while he marched to New Ross, arriving there on October 17th. The governor of the town was Gen. Taaffe, the future Earl of Carlingford. Taaffe ignored Cromwell’s call to surrender until the town wall was breached on the 19th and then surrendered the town on condition that the garrison be allowed march away with its arms. Cromwell agreed on condition that the artillery be surrendered and that the practice of Catholicism cease. Taaffe took 2,000 men out of New Ross and joined Ormond’s field army in Kilkenny. However 500 of his men who were Protestant refused to march with him and defected to the Cromwellians. The Parliamentarians then set to building a pontoon bridge across the River Barrow. This job took 2 weeks, the river being 200 yards wide and swollen from the autumn rain.
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Meanwhile political activity continued on other fronts. In Ulster Owen Roe O’Neill agreed an alliance with the Confederate/Royalist faction on October 20th. On the 16th Protestant Army Officers in <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City> also switched allegiance and liberated those of their comrades who had been arrested in Youghal the previous month. A regiment was despatched by sea to <st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City> to take control of the city. At this stage also Cromwell fell ill at New Ross.
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Duncannon Holds Out
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At Duncannon the fort’s garrison was holding out against Ireton’s men. Jones sent 2,000 reinforcements to Duncannon along with siege artillery. The Royalists had also reinforced th garrison with 120 men under command of a Captain Edward Wogan who was a bit of a fire-eater. He sent raids out of the fort against the besiegers and on November 5th they captured two siege guns. The Parliamentarians abandoned the siege.
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Reverse at Thomastown
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Jones and Ireton changed tack and decided to attack the Royalist capital at Kilkenny. On November 15th they crossed the Barrow and marched north-west towards Thomastown. The Royalists meanwhile were marching towards New Ross to destroy the Parliamentarian bridgehead. Despite the fact that he had been reinforced with Ulstermen of O’Neill’s army, Ormond was reluctant to engage in open battle, knowing that to do so and lose would effectively mean the loss of <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State> to the Parliamentarians. He decided to withdraw back across the River Nore, destroying the bridge behind him. His advance to Kilkenny halted and running short of food, Jones withdrew to New Ross with the main body of troops while sending a large cavalry contingent under Col Reynolds to take the town of <st1:City><st1:place>Carrick</st1:place></st1:City> on Suir.
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The Fall of Carrick on Suir
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Carrick was an important location because sited there was the first bridge over the River Suir, an obstacle protecting the county and the port city of <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. Reynolds captured Carrick without the loss of a single man on November 19th. Launching a feint on the main gate, his men entered the town through another gate which had been left unmanned. The Royalists claimed they had been betrayed. Whatever the cause, the Parliamentarians now controlled access to <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. Cromwell, recovered from his illness, led the army out of New Ross on November 21st and 2 days later crossed the Suir at Carrick and turned east back along the south bank of the river towards <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. He also linked up with Lord Broghill who commanded the troops sent to <st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City> a month previously. Broghill was actually a <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City> man (from Lismore) and the elder brother of Robert Boyle of Boyle’s Law fame. Broghill hadn’t been taking it easy and had occupied <st1:City><st1:place>Cork</st1:place></st1:City>, Kinsale, Youghal and Dungarvan, mainly through defection of Protestant officers.
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Ormond Marches South
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Ormond wasn’t sitting on his hands either. While Cromwell was crossing into <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>, Ormond marched south from Kilkenny. Opinion amongst his commanders was divided as to what was their best course of action. The Ulstermen wanted to recapture Carrick, while the Royalists wanted to reinforce <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. Ormond compromised and sent a force under Inchiquin and Lord Castlehaven to attack Carrick while he marched along the north bank of the Suir to <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. The attack on Carrick took place on November 24th. Reynolds had been left with 700 men to garrison the town. The Irismen, lacking siege artillery simply rushed the walls and lost 500 men in 4 hours of fighting before abandoning the attempt.

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Waterford Holds Out
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On the same day, Cromwell commenced the siege of <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>. He sent Jones to take Passage fort, which surrendered immediately. Cromwell’s naval forces were able to land artillery on the Waterford bank of the river but they found that the boggy ground prevented their being moved overland. Cromwell attempted to negotiate the surrender of the city but when Ormond’s reinforcements arrived at the end of November, and with sickness rife in his army, Cromwell raised the siege on December 2nd and went into winter quarters in Dungarvan. Over the winter months dysentery and malaria killed over 1,000 of his men. <o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
25th October 2008, 09:09
The Battle of Meelick Island
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Fought on 25th October 1650 as part of the Confederate Wars.<o:p></o:p>
Meelick Island is in the River Shannon between Counties Offaly and Galway a few miles south of Banagher.
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The Parliamentarians advance on Athlone
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By October 1650, the Parliamentarian army had captured almost all the Irish strongholds in Ulster, Leinster and Munster. Connacht, protected by the Shannon, had so far remained safe from Cromwellian attack. By this time also Cromwell had returned to England leaving his son-in-law, General Henry Ireton (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/ireton.htm) in command. By August Ireton was ready to move against Connacht and the fortifications along the Shannon crossings. Limerick was the last Irish stronghold in Munster and one of the strongest fortresses in the country. Hugh Dubh O'Neill (the hero of Clonmel (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1650-clonmel.htm#storm)) had been appointed governor of Limerick but the garrison wasn’t ready for a siege. Oddly, Ireton did not move to attack Limerick with his main army.
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On 16 August 1650, Ireton sent Sir Hardress Waller (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/waller-hardress.htm) with a column to cover the eastern approaches to Limerick. He, himself, set off with his main force to Athlone but he took the scenic route through Counties Carlow and Wicklow. He planned to rendezvous before Athlone with Sir Charles Coote (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/coote2.htm), who was advancing south from Ulster (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-ulster.htm). You will remember that Coote was sent north after Drogheda the previous autumn. The circuitous approach to Athlone was to allow Ireton’s forces to hunt down Irish "tories" operating in County Wicklow. Tories, from the Irish word tóraidhe a hunted man or outlaw, were former Confederate soldiers who raided English-held areas and operated as guerillas. While his main force marched to Naas, Ireton led a column of eight hundred men into the Wicklow mountains, seizing livestock and killing any armed Irishmen that could be found, while smaller detachments raided deep into the Wicklow glens and bogs. Ireton spent several weeks campaigning against the Wicklow tories and did not arrive to meet Sir Charles Coote at Athlone until 16 September. Om Athlone Ireton’s plan was to march down the western bank of the Shannon so that Limerick could be attacked from both sides of the river.
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Ireton believed that Lord Dillon, the Irish commander at Athlone, was planning to surrender the town (with its bridge over the Shannon) to the English in exchange for money and a guarantee of personal safety. However, Dillon had no intention of surrendering Athlone. The deception was intended to draw Ireton away from Limerick to give O'Neill time to prepare its defences. Lord Dillon had destroyed the part of Athlone on the eastern side of the Shannon and withdrawn his troops to the western side where Athlone Castle overlooked the bridge across the river. Lacking heavy artillery to attack the fortifications, Ireton spent two weeks before Athlone waiting in vain for Dillon to surrender the bridge and castle. Finally, he decided to leave Coote and his troops at Athlone while he marched down the eastern side of the Shannon to join Sir Hardress Waller at Limerick. On the march south, Ireton's forces captured a number of Irish outposts in Offaly and Tipperary and posted garrisons near fording sites over the Shannon as a precaution against Irish raids from Connacht.<o:p></o:p>
Ireton arrived at Limerick on 6th October. However the garrison was by now fully supplied and prepared for a long siege. Ireton’s summons to Hugh O'Neill to surrender was refused and with the opportunity for a quick end to the siege lost and with winter closing in, Ireton decided to send his army into winter quarters and to make preparations for a determined assault on Limerick in the spring. The English army withdrew from Limerick on 19th October, leaving a covering force on the eastern side of the Shannon to guard against possible Irish incursions into Munster or Leinster.
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Confederate reaction
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The man in Comand in Connacht was Ulick Burke, Marquis of Clanricarde (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/clanricarde.htm). (We met one of his ancestors, another Ulick, at Knockdoe). Clanricarde had been the leading Irish commander in Connacht since 1641 and was widely regarded as the likely successor to the Marquis of Ormond as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. The English threat to Connacht during the summer of 1650 galvanised Clanricarde (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/clanricarde.htm) into action. He mustered 3,000 men to support the garrison at Athlone. They however were not needed in the town when Ireton marched south at the end of September. Clanricarde then launched an attack across the River Shannon, with the intention of cutting English communications between Athlone and Limerick and disrupting supply lines through the midlands.
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In early October, Clanricarde's forces crossed the Shannon at fords around Shannonbridge south of Athlone. Several outposts were overrun as the Irish advanced into English-held territory in western Leinster. Colonel Axtell (http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/axtell.htm), the English commander in the area, fell back to Birr and then to Roscrea. Clanricarde gathered reinforcements to bring the strength of his army up to around 4,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. English reinforcements marched up from Wexford and Kilkenny to join Axtell at Roscrea on 21st October. Axtell advanced towards Birr and Clanricarde decided to withdraw and to take up a defensive position at Meelick Island on the River Shannon.
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The Battle of Meelick Island
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Soldiers were posted to overlook the ford that the English would have to cross in order to attack the Irish entrenchments on Meelick Island. Despite being heavily outnumbered, Axtell launched a surprise attack late in the evening of 25th October, as darkness began to fall. In fierce hand-to-hand fighting, the Irish were driven back from the ford and Axtell's men advanced onto the island. The speed and ferocity of the English attack overwhelmed the Irish and the whole army was routed. Up to 1,000 Irishmen were killed in the fighting or drowned as they tried to escape across the Shannon in the dark. Although Clanricarde escaped, his personal wagons and tents were captured along with the weapons, horses and the entire baggage train of the Irish army. All the garrsions taken by the Irish on the eastern side of the Shannon were quickly recaptured. <o:p></o:p>

Axtell was later court-martialled by Ireton for killing prisoners taken at Meelick after promise of quarter.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
27th October 2008, 22:37
The Rebellion of 1641

The Irish Confederate Wars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Confederate_Wars) started in the last week of October 1641, as an attempted coup d'etat by Irish Catholic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Church) gentry. The rebellion quickly degenerated into inter-communal violence between the Catholic native Irish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_people) and Protestant English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England) and Scottish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) settlers. The spark that ignited the rebellion was fear of an invasion of Ireland by anti-Catholic English Parliamentarian forces and Scottish Covenanters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covenanters). Of course the Catholic support for Charles I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_England) led English and Scottish Protestants to fear a Papist resurgance and helped to trigger the start of the English Civil War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War).
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The rebellion broke out in the last week of October 1641 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1641_in_Ireland) and was followed months of vilence in Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland) until the Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland) in the summer of 1642 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1642_in_Ireland). The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, independent of the English State and loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the civil wars that became known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Three_Kingdoms). The Confederate War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Confederate_Wars)s continued in Ireland until the 1650s and the reconquest of the country by Cromwell and the New Model Army (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Model_Army).
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The roots of the rebellion lie in the failure of the English to assimilate the Irish upper class following the Elizabethan conquest (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_re-conquest_of_Ireland) and the plantation of the country. The Irish population was divided into the Old Irish and the Old English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English_(Ireland)) (descendants of medieval Norman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normans) settlers). These groups were historically antagonistic, with English enclaves around Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin) and other walled towns being fortified against the Gaelic clans. However by Elizabethan times the dividing lines between these groups, especially at the aristocracy level, were becoming blurred. Many Old English lords spoke Irish, patronised Irish poetry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_poetry) and music and intermarried with the Old Irish. Moreover, in the wake of the Reformation, the Old and New Irish were united by their shared religion, Roman Catholicism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholicism). The new outsiders were the Church of England (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_England) and Church of Scotland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Scotland) settlers. From the end of the Elizabethan wars in 1603 to the outbreak of the rebellion in 1641, the political position of the landed Irish Catholics was increasingly threatened by the Protestant English government in Ireland. Protestantism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestantism) was the only legally approved form of worship in Ireland as in England. Non-attendance at Protestant services was punishable by "recusant fines" and the public practice of Catholicism could lead to arrest. Catholics could not hold senior offices of state, or serve above a certain rank in the army. The Irish privy council (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privy_council) and the Irish House of Commons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_Ireland) were dominated by Protestants Indeed the Irish Parliament was subordinate to the English Parliament under Poynings' Law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poynings%27_Law). The Protestant administration took every opportunity to confiscate Catholic land. By the late 1630s Thomas Wentworth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wentworth), Charles I’s representative in Ireland was planning a new round of plantations in Roscommon, Sligo, Galway and Kilkenny. The losers were mainly the "Old English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English)" families. All the while the Catholic aristocracy had been negotiating with the monarchy for the return of their rights and toleration of religion. It never came to pass.
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Economics also played its part in the outbreak of the rebellion. Interest rates in the 1630s had reached 30% per annum. The economy was in recession and the harvest had failed in 1641. Many of the leaders of the rebellion, men like Phelim O'Neill and Rory O'Moore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rory_(Roger)_O%27Moore), were heavily in debt and were in danger of losing their land. The peasants were were starving and faced with rising rents. The easy option for them was to kill the landlord.
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Finally the Irish feared invasion. In 1638 the Scots (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland) rose in a revolt (called The Bishops' Wars (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bishops%27_Wars)) against Charles I's attempt to impose Anglicanism. They thought it too close to Catholicism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholicism) for comfort. The King's attempt to put down the rebellion failed when Parliament refused to vote in 1641 for new taxes to pay for raising an army. Charles started negotiations to recruit an Irish army to put down the rebellion in Scotland. During the early part of 1641, some Scots and Parliamentarians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_England) proposed invading Ireland to ensure that no royalist Irish Catholic army would invade England or Scotland. A small group of Irish Catholic landowners in turn formulated a plan to take Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Castle)and other towns around the country in a coup in the name of the King.
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Groundhog
27th October 2008, 22:38
The Rebellion

The planners of the rebellion were a small group of mainly Old Irish, Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster) landowners, Hugh MacMahon and Conor Maguire were to seize Dublin Castle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Castle), while Phelim O’Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felim_O%27Neill_of_Kinard) and Rory O’Moore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rory_(Roger)_O%27Moore) were to take Derry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derry) and other northern towns. The coup was planned for the 23rd of October 1641. The plan was a surprise attack to take their objectives in the expectation of support from the rest of the country. However the plan was betrayed by an informer, one Owen O’Connolly. Maguire and MacMahon were arrested. O'Neill however successfully took several forts in the north of the country, claiming to be acting in the King's name.

The authorities in Dublin reacted quickly and brutally. Fearing that the Catholics planned a massacre of every Protestant in the country they sent troops under command of Charles Coote and William St Leger (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_St_Leger) to rebel held areas in Wicklow and Cork in early 1642. Coote and St Leger did more to provoke a general rebellion that they did to put it down. The rebellion in Munster has been largely attributed to St Leger. in Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster), the breakdown of state authority prompted widespread attacks by the native Irish on the English Protestant settlers, the Scottish settlers initially were not attacked by the rebels but eventually they too became targets. Insurgent leaders tried to stop the attacks on the settlers, but were unable to control the peasants. In addition many Irish Catholic lords who had lost lands or feared dispossession joined the rebellion and participated in the attacks on the settlers. However, at this stage, the attacks usually involved beating and robbery rather than the killing of Protestants.
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By early 1642, there were four main concentrations of rebel forces. In Ulster under Phelim O'Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phelim_O%27Neill), around Dublin led by Viscount Gormanstown, in the south east, led by the Butler family, notably Lord Mountgarret and in the south west, led by Donagh MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donagh_MacCarthy,_Viscount_Muskerry). In areas where British settlers were concentrated, around Cork (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(city)), Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin), Carrickfergus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrickfergus) and Derry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derry), they had raised their own militia and managed to hold off the rebel forces. Charles I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_England) was initially hostile to the rebels and sent a large army to Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin) to put down the rebels. The Scottish parliament also sent an army to Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster) to defend their compatriots there. The Irish rebels were saved by another rebellion, the outbreak of Civil War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War) in England. In part Parliament did not trust Charles with command of the army raised to send to Ireland, fearing that it would afterwards be used against them. Because of th ewar in England, the English troops were withdrawn from Ireland. This gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland), which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by men like Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(city)) in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland). The Confederation sided with the Royalists (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavaliers_(royalists)) in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland) by Cromwell and the English Parliament's New Model Army (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Model_Army) from 1649 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1649_in_Ireland) through to 1653.
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Groundhog
27th October 2008, 22:39
Massacres
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The number of planters killed in the early months of the uprising is uncertain. English Parliamentarian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roundheads) pamphlets claimed that over 200,000 settlers had lost their lives though recent research indicates that the number is in the region of 4,000 killed and thousands more ethnically cleansed. It is estimated that up to 12,000 Protestants may have lost their lives in total, the majority dying of cold or disease after being expelled from their homes in the depths of winter. The attacks intensified the longer the rebellion went on. At first, there were beatings and robbing of local settlers, then house burnings and expulsions and finally killings, most of them concentrated in Ulster. The violence escalated after a failed rebel assault on Lisnagarvey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisnagarvey) in November 1641 during which the settlers killed several hundred captured insurgents. After this battle the massacre of planters in Portadown (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portadown) took place.
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At Portadown, the Irish soldiers were said by to be led by either Captain Manus O'Cane or Toole McCann. Accounts of the event differed on who participated. In mid November the English inhabitants of the town were rounded up and imprisoned in the Church. Told they were being taken to a ship to be sent to England, they were marched to a bridge over the river Bann (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Bann). Once on the bridge, they were fmade to strip naked and were then herded into the river at swordpoint where most drowned or died of exposure. Those who loked like escaping were shot by musket-fire. Estimates of the number killed varied from less than 100 to over 300. William Clark, a survivor, said that 100 were killed at the bridge.
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Other notable massacres in Ulster took place in Kilmore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilmore,_County_Armagh) parish where English and Scottish men, women and children were burned to death in the cottage in which they were imprisoned., In County Armagh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Armagh) about 1,250 Protestants were killed in the early months of the rebellion. In County Tyrone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Tyrone) the worst massacre took place in Kinard. The killings of Protestant settlers in 1641 is preserved in Loyalist folk memory to this day.
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Of course the massacres weren’t all one sided and the Protestanst took any opportunity presented them for revenge. After a skirmish at Kilwarlin woods near Newry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newry) Irish prisoners were executed. The following day English soldiers entered Newry and captured its castle. After the surrender Catholic soldiers and local merchants were lined up on the banks of the river and butchered. On Rathlin Island (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rathlin_Island) Scottish Covenanter soldiers of the Argyll's Foot killed hundreds the local Catholic MacDonalds, relatives of their Clan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan) enemy in the Scottish Highlands. Scores of MacDonald women were thrown over the island’s cliffs. Again the number of victims is disputed as being from 100 to as high as 3,000. The widespread killing of civilians was brought under control in 1642 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1642_in_Ireland), when Owen Roe O'Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Roe_O%27Neill) arrived in Ulster from Spain to command the Irish Catholic forces. He hanged several rebels for attacks on civilians. <o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
9th November 2008, 21:51
The Battle of Arklow 1649

The Battle of Arklow took place on the coast road near Arklow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arklow), Co. Wicklow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wicklow), in early November 1649 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1649). It was fought between the Irish Confederate/ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland)Royalist army and the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell.
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By late October, the Irish had suffered a number of defeats including the battle of Rathmines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rathmines), and the loss of Drogheda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Drogheda) and Wexford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Wexford). The Duke of Ormonde (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Butler,_1st_Duke_of_Ormonde) was keen to regain the initiative. In October he received word that a column of English soldiers was preparing to march from Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin) to Wexford to reinforce Cromwell's troops in the south. Murrough O'Brien, the Baron of Inchiquin and Theobald Taaffe were sent with a force of 2,500 men to intercept the Roundheads. Despite the fact that it was a minor operation, it presented an opportunity to Inchiquin who had joined the Royalists recently and was distrusted by the Catholic population due to a number of atrocities he had committed in the years of fighting before the srrival of Cromwell. In addition in the Autumn of 1649 many of the Protestant soldiers in Munster formerly loyal to him had mutinied and joined with Parliament. The Arklow operation presented Inchquin with an opportunity to redeem himself.
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The English, under a Major Nelson left Dublin at the end of October. Marching through the Wicklow Mountains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wicklow_Mountains) his soldiers were harassed by tories (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapparees), though these attacks did not hinder the force to any great extent. Inchiquin meanwhile prepared an ambush to the south of Arklow, where the hills come close to the sea. A log barricade was placed across the Wexford road and 1,000 infantry deployed behind it and along the roadside. All to nought however for Nelson was informed that an ambush was planned and moved his force by a roundabout route, hoping to avoid Inchiquin. Realising what was happening, Inchiquin moved his cavalry to intercept Nelson, leaving his foot behind so they did not take part in the fighting.
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As Inchiquin’s force came into view, the English hurriedly deployed on the beach with their backs to the sea. As the Irish were forming up in preparation for an attack, 350 English horse charged, hoping to catch them by surprise The Parliamentarian cavalry was successfully repulsed on two occasions. Inchiquin then launched a full cavalry assault on the English horsemen who fled back towards their infantry, with the Irish in pursuit. The English infantry opened up their ranks to allow the horse to pass through and then the gaps in the ranks were closed again. Inchiquin’s charging cavalry was presented with a mass of pike-heads and musket barrels Musket fire tore into the Irish Cavalry, throwing them into disorder and leaving many men and horses dead and wounded on the beach. The English cavalry counter-attacked, forcing the Irish to retreat and Nelson resumed his march to Wexford.
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Demoralised by his failure Inchiquin returned to Munster, where there were still some forces loyal to him. However these were routed by Broghill in March the following year. Shortly afterwards Inchiquin fled to the continent.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
12th November 2008, 12:54
The Battle of Carrickfergus
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The Battle was fought on 4th November 1597 between the Ulster-Scots MacDonnell clan and the English garrison of Carrickfergus Castle under the command of John Chichester.
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There wasn’t supposed to be a battle at all. James MacSorley MacDonnell, nephew of Sorley Boy MacDonnell, although his name suggests he was his son, marched to Carrickfergus to parley with Chichester over a series of raids by the English into MacDonnell territory. On the 4th MacDonnell was sighted approaching Carrickfergus with almost 2,000 men. The governor left his castle accompanied by 5 companies of foot and one of horse. The two bodies of troops met 4 miles from the castle whereupon Chichester ordered his commanders to charge the Irish, who promptly withdrew behind a hill.
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Chichester and a small body of horse drew ahead of the main body of his army and were isolated by a MacDonnell counter-attack. Chichester was shot in the leg and fell off his horse. However he remounted and charged on until killed by another shot to the head. The MacDonnells broke the English formation which withdrew in disarray. Although reinforced from the castel by walking wounded and the sick, the English were routed, losing 180 dead and 40 or so wounded.
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Sorley Boy MacDonnell
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Sorley Boy MacDonnell, James MacSorley MacDonnell’s uncle (or father) was born in 1505 and died in 1590. For most of his life he fought the English and other Ulster clans. His name was an anglicisation of his Irish name Somhairle Buide MacDomhnaill. His son Randal was created Earl of Antrim and his descendants still hold the title today. Also among his descendants is Winston Churchill (his 6 times great grandson).<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
12th November 2008, 19:21
The <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Battle</st1:place></st1:City> of Knocknanuss
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Fought on <st1:date Month="11" Day="13" Year="1647">Saturday 13th November 1647</st1:date> as part of the Confederate Wars. Knocknanuss is in Co. Cork, between Mallow and Kanturk. The name derived from Cnoc na nÓs means Hill of the Fawns
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The opposing commanders were Murrough O’Brien, Lord Inchiquin and General Theobald Taaffe, both of whom we have met on the same side battling Cromwell in Wexford. Taaffe commanded approximately 7,500 foot and 1,100 horse, Inchiquin 4,000 foot and 1,200 horse. However only about 1/3 of Taaffe’s men had firearms as opposed to 2/3 of Inchiquin’s. In addition Inchiquin had two cannon. <o:p></o:p>
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In 1647 Taaffe was on the side of the Catholic Confederates and Inchiquin was fighting for Parliament. Inchiquin was engaged in a campaign in <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State> in which he had already sacked Dungarvan, Cappoquin and Cashel. It was during this campaign that he earned the nickname by which he is affectionately known to Irish history, Murrough the Burner. Taaffe, the somewhat ineffectual commander of the Munster Confederate Army, was attempting to put a halt to Inchiquin’s gallop. To that end he assembled his army at Dromalour south of Kanturk in early November while Inchiquin camped at Mallow.<o:p></o:p>
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Early on the morning of Nov 12th Inchiquin marched from Mallow west to Garryduff where he set up camp. At the same time Taaffe marched east to Knocnanuss, where he entrenched his men 3 miles south of the Parliamentarians. Taaffe sent an emissary to Inchiquin’s camp inviting him to battle and offering to pit 2,000 infantry from each side against each other for a bit of sport. Inchiquin declined that day but on the morning of the 13th offered to meet Taaffe in battle on the level ground between their two positions. This Taaffe declined as he held the advantage of the high ground of Knocknanuss hill. After a quick council of war, Inchiquin decided to assault the Confederate position. Forming up the army and moving forward took up most of the day and the battle proper did not commence until <st1:time Hour="15" Minute="0">3 pm</st1:time>.<o:p></o:p>
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Inchiquin feinted with his left flank as if he was attacking the Confederate right on the slopes of Knocknanuss hill and engaged the Confederates here with his cannon. Taaffe strengthened his right flank, at the expense of his left. Inchiquin then withdrew his troops on his right while deploying the left in cover along a road to deal with any Confederate attack. The Confederates, seeing the Parliamentarians seemingly withdrawing, launched a cavalry charge followed by the infantry on the moving columns of men. Inchiquin’s infantry deployed quickly and a volley of musketry threw back the Confederate cavalry who fled the field riding down their own infantry in the process. The Parliamentary cavalry charged and routed the Confederate left. The centre of Taaffe’s line also broke and fled. <o:p></o:p>
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Over on Knocknanuss hill, it was initially a different story. Here, the cavalry from both sides had clashed and again the Confederates fled the field. The Parliamentary infantry, deployed in cover, lost the run of themselves and advanced into the open. The Confederate troops here were <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> men under command of a Scotsman, Alastair McDonnell. McDonnell’s infantry gave the Parliamentarians a volley of musketry and then charged with their swords, breaking through Inchiquin’s line and capturing his baggage wagons and artillery. And then they stopped to loot the wagons, gorging themselves on food and wine. McDonnell, at a loss as to what to do next, and seemingly unaware that the rest of the Confederate army had fled went looking for Taaffe for orders. He was captured near Taaffe’s abandoned HQ but subsequently turned up amongst the dead. The circumstances of his death are open to speculation but he was apparently murdered while a prisoner. <o:p></o:p>
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Inchiquin consolidated his victory over the Confederate left and centre and then fell upon McDonnell’s men who had been drinking among the Parliamentary wagons for an hour. The disorganised and leaderless looters were quickly overcome with the loss of almost 2,000 killed. Darkness put an end to the pursuit of the beaten Confederates, although mopping up continued over the next few days. <o:p></o:p>
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Knocknanuss was the largest battle ever fought in <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State>. About 4,000 men died, with Inchiquin’s officers being badly mauled. Parliament lost a Major General and 3 Colonels in the battle but the battle ended Confederate control in <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State><o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
12th November 2008, 19:23
Lord Inchiquin


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Murrough O'Brien (Murchadh Ó Briain, nicknamed Murchadh na Dóiteáin, Murrough of the Burnings) was a descendant of Brian Boru. From 1624 to 1654 he held the title of 6th Baron Inchiquin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Inchiquin) and thereafter was created 1st Earl Inchquin. He was born about 1614 and died on the 9th September 1674. In his time he was, after Ormond (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Butler,_1st_Duke_of_Ormonde), the leading Protestant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant) native Irish peer in Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland). He was one of 10 men named in Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_for_the_Settlement_of_Ireland_1652) as leaders of the Royalist forces in Ireland. Inchquin detested the native Irish rebels but in particular he hated Owen Roe O'Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Roe_O%27Neill), perhaps because his grandfather, also Murrough O'Brien, was killed in 1597 at Casan-na-gCuradh while fighting against the O’Neills.
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Inchiquin served in the Spanish Army in Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Army_of_Italy) from 1636 to 1639 before returningn to Ireland where he married the daughter of Sir William St Leger (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_St_Leger), President of Munster (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=President_of_Munster&action=edit&redlink=1). When St Leger died in 1641, Inchiquin took over the administration of Munster. During the Irish Uprising of 1641 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Uprising_of_1641), he sided with the planters against the Catholic Confederates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland). He held Cork (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cork_(city)) and south-western Ireland in the King's name until the truce arranged by Ormond (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Butler,_1st_Duke_of_Ormonde) in September 1643. In 1642, he saved Cork when he routed a Confederate army under Garret Barry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garret_Barry) in the Battle of Liscarroll (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Liscarroll).
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In February 1644, Inchiquin went to Oxford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford) expecting to be granted the King’s commission as President of Munster. However Charles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_England), with his penchant for making enemies, gave the post to the Earl of Portland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Portland). Enraged, Inchiquin returned to Ireland and defected to the Parliamentarians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roundheads). He expelled the Catholics from Cork, Youghal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youghal), and Kinsale (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinsale), and consolidated his hold on the south-west He decisively defeated Lord Taafe's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_Taaffe,_1st_Earl_of_Carlingford) Confederates at the battle of Knocknanauss (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Knocknanauss) in November 1647, crippling the Confederates' Munster Army. Prior to that he slaughtered the garrison at Cashel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashel,_County_Tipperary) in September 1647 and devastated Confederate towns like Cappoquin and Dungarvan. His enemies gave him his nickname during this campaign. <o:p></o:p>

In early 1648, parliament passed the Act of No Addresses, which basically declared it’s intention to abolish the monarchy. Alarmed at this development, Inchiquin again changed sides and declared for the King in March 1648. He declared a truce with the Confederates, causing a split between the Confederate Supreme Council (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Council) and Archbishop Rinuccini (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbishop_Rinuccini), who had been sent by the Pope to ensure that the revolution wasn’t won by Godless Protestants. Inchiquin welcomed the Marquis of Ormond when he returned to Ireland in September. Ormond negotiated the Second Ormond Peace (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland#Military_defeat_and_a_new_Ormo nde_peace), securing an alliance between the Royalists and the Confederates against Parliament. Crucially the leader of the Ulster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulster) Catholics, General Owen Roe O'Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Roe_O%27Neill), wasn’t party to the alliance and Inchiquin spent much of 1648 and 1649 fighting the dissidents. O’Neill didn’t join the Confederates until the summer of 1649, hampering the Royalists' resistance to Cromwell's invasion of Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland). Inchiquinn fought at the Battle of Rathmines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rathmines), commanding the rearguard action that enabled many of the survivors to get away. Three months after this he took charge of an army in an attempt to bring the offensive to the Parliamentarians but he was beaten back at the Battle of Arklow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arklow_(1649)). This defeat largely discredited Inchiquin. By the following year, things looked hopeless for the Royalists. A few companies of Protestant troops still loyal to Inchiquin were routed in March by Broghill and by May 1650 many of Inchiquinn's remaining Protestant troops had defected to the Parliamentarians. He went into exile with Ormond to France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France) shortly afterwards where they joined the court of King Charles II who had succeeded to the throne in January 1649 following the execution of Charles I. The future “Merrie Monarch” had in fact been proclaimed King in St Multose Church in Kinsale.
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Inchiquin converted to Catholicism and was granted an earldom in 1654 by Charles. He fought with the French army in Italy and Catalonia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalonia) from 1654 to 1655. After the Restoration (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Restoration) of the Monarchy in 1660, Inchiquin recovered his estates in Munster but was denied the Presidency because of his new religion. For a few months he commanded an unsuccessful expeditionary force sent by Charles II to help the Portuguese in their war with Spain in 1662, after which he lived quietly in Ireland until his death in 1674.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
21st November 2008, 14:46
Bloody Sunday- Part 1<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>


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Perhaps the most famous event of the War of Independence, Bloody Sunday took place on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Month="11" Day="21" Year="1920">21st November 1920</st1:date>.<o:p></o:p>
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The day began with an IRA operation, ordered by Michael Collins and conducted mainly by a group known as The Squad, to kill a number of British agents in <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. The agents were known as the Cairo Gang, either from their supposed meeting place, the Cairo Café on Grafton St or because many had served in the Middle East during the war. The latter has a nice hint of skulduggery about it. Besides which if they all met in the one café, they’d have been easy to kill. <o:p></o:p>
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Early on the morning of the 21st, the members of the Squad, supported by other IRA men made their way to various addresses in south inner city Dublin at which members of the Cairo Gang were staying. The first to die were two agents who were killed at 28, <st1:Street><st1:address>Upper Pembroke St</st1:address></st1:Street> at <st1:time Hour="9" Minute="0">9 am</st1:time>. They were Maj Charles Dowling and Capt Leonard Price. In addition four others were wounded at this address. They were an officer named <st1:place><st1:City>Murray</st1:City>, <st1:State>Col</st1:State></st1:place> Woodcock, Capt Keenlyside and Col Hugh Montgomery, who died of his wounds on 10th December. <o:p></o:p>
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Capt George Bennett and Lt Peter Ames were killed at <st1:Street><st1:address>38 Upper Mount St</st1:address></st1:Street>. <o:p></o:p>
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At <st1:Street><st1:address>22 Lower Mount St</st1:address></st1:Street> 11 men, led by Tom Keogh, were tasked with killing Lts Henry Angliss (or McMahon as he was sometimes known) and Peel. Both men had recently served in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Angliss, an Enniskillen man who had been promoted from the ranks during the war, had already survived one attempt on his life and had been implicated in the killing of a Sinn Féin member named John Lynch, presumably mistaken for Liam Lynch. This time his luck ran out. Peel barricaded himself in his bedroom and survived a dozen shots fired through the door. In the melee the building was surrounded by an Auxiliary patrol. In the ensuing firefight two Auxies (Garniss and Morris by name) died and one IRA man, Frank Teeling, was wounded and captured. Teeling subsequently escaped from Kilmainham Jail.<o:p></o:p>
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At <st1:Street><st1:address>119 Baggot St</st1:address></st1:Street>,Seán Lemass (http://tripatlas.com/Seán_Lemass) and two others were involved in the killing of Capt G Baggalley, who had been a member of military tribunals trying Volunteers. <o:p></o:p>
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At <st1:Street><st1:address>92 Lower Baggot St</st1:address></st1:Street>, Capt Newberry and his wife barricaded themselves into their bedroom. Newberry was escaping out the window when Joe Leonard and Tom Stapleton broke the door down and killed him.<o:p></o:p>
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At <st1:Street><st1:address>119 Morehampton Road</st1:address></st1:Street>, three men were shot. They were Lt Donald MacLean, his brother in law John Caldow and a suspected informer named Smith. MacLean asked that they not be shot in front of his wife so the three were taken to the roof and shot. Caldow survived.<o:p></o:p>
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Sgt John FitzGerald, an RIC man from <st1:City><st1:place>Tipperary</st1:place></st1:City> was killed at 28 Earlsfort Terrace. Like Angliss he had survived a previous attempt on his life.<o:p></o:p>
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Two agents were reported killed in the Gresham Hotel, named as Capts McCormack and Wilde. The CWGC website does not record their names, nor that of Baggalley (or Bagley) so they may have been Secret Service Agents or members of the RIC. Other sources say that McCormack was killed because the doorman of the hotel sent the IRA men to the wrong room and that McCormack was an officer of the Veterinary Corps sent from <st1:country-region><st1:place>Egypt</st1:place></st1:country-region> to buy mules.<o:p></o:p>
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Some reports also say that the wife of one agent was killed along with her husband in <st1:Street><st1:address>Mount St</st1:address></st1:Street>. <o:p></o:p>
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Some men had narrow escapes. Capt Jeune returned from duty to <st1:Street><st1:address>28 Pembrooke St</st1:address></st1:Street>, to find the house resembling an abbatoir. Maj Dowling, who died in uniform having survived three wounds on the Western Front, was the man who was to relieve him on duty. Capt Crawford was allowed live when the IRA called to his digs looking for a man named Callaghan. Callaghan had reportedly spent the night with a prostitute. I hope he left her a big tip. Other men not at home when death came calling were Col Jennings, Maj King and Maj Hardy. Joe Dolan was so put out at finding his target (King) missing that he thrashed his mistress instead. <o:p></o:p>
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History has decided that the men who died on Bloody Sunday morning were all secret agents operating undercover. Personally, I find it strange that so many had their wives living with them while they were on active service.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
21st November 2008, 15:08
Bloody Sunday- Part 2


<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Croke </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Park</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>
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The security forces did not delay in exacting revenge. On the afternoon of the 21st, <st1:City><st1:place>Tipperary</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> were playing a football match in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Croke</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Park</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Depending on the account you read, members of the RIC, the Black and Tans, the Auxiliaries or any combination of the three entered the ground and fired into the crowd. In addition police on the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Canal</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> fired on people climbing over the wall of the ground to escape. There were British soldiers on <st1:Street><st1:address>Clonliffe Road</st1:address></st1:Street>, accompanied by an armoured car. This armoured car (despite the film) did not enter the ground and did not fire into the crowd. It did fire over the heads of people on <st1:Street><st1:address>Clonliffe Road</st1:address></st1:Street> to stop them running away.
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The shooting lasted about 90 seconds, in which over 100 rounds were fired killing 7 people immediately and fatally injuring 5. Two people were trampled to death in the panic and scores injured. The dead were Michael Hogan, Captain of the Tipperary football team, Thomas Ryan from Wexford who stopped to pray over Hogan’s body and was shot and killed, Jeanie Boyle who went to the match with her fiancé and was due to marry the following week, John Scott, aged 14, Jeremiah O'Leary aged 10, Daniel Carroll from Templederry, Co. Tipperary, Thomas Hogan, James Burke, James Matthews, Thomas Boyle, Patrick O'Dowd, William Robinson, Joseph Traynor, Michael Feery, James Teehan, and Daniel Carroll.

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One other <st1:City><st1:place>Tipperary</st1:place></st1:City> player was wounded on the day. He was Jim Egan from Mullinahone. I’m fairly sure that he was killed during the Civil War.


http://i95.photobucket.com/albums/l151/md24124549/michahogan3ro.jpg


Michael Hogan<o:p></o:p>
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The killings of McKee and Clancy
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On Saturday night, Nov 20th, McKee, Clancy and other officers of the IRA met at <st1:City><st1:place>Vaughan</st1:place></st1:City>'s Hotel. Michael Collins was also in attendance and ended the meeting early due to reports of security forces in the area. Collins, McKee and Clancy had just left the building when it was surrounded. McKee and Clancy returned to their lodgings at Fitzpatrick's in<st1:Street><st1:address>Gloucester St</st1:address></st1:Street>. They were arrested here at about <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="1">1 am</st1:time> and taken to <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Dublin</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> where they were detained in the Guardroom. On Sunday night the two men along with another man named Conor Clune were killed “while attempting to escape”. One of the men involved in the killings was Maj Hardy who had escaped death earlier that morning. <o:p></o:p>

WilcoOut
21st November 2008, 15:30
conor clune was a non combatant, a poet/song writer im sure. a song book that he possessed on the night of his murder turned up in a box in dublin castle only 2years ago

Groundhog
29th November 2008, 09:24
Kilmichael
28th November 1920




On <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1920" Day="21" Month="11">21<SUP>st</SUP> November 1920</st1:date> a column of thirty-six riflemen was mobilised at Clogher, north-west of Dunmanway, for a week's training, in advance of an attack on the Auxiliaries from Macroom. At <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="2">2 a.m.</st1:time> on the following Sunday, the flying column of thirty-six riflemen fell in at Ahilina. Each man was armed with a rifle and thirty-five rounds. A few had revolvers, and the commander had also two Mills bombs, which had been captured in a previous ambush at Toureen. At <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="3">3 a.m.</st1:time> the men were told for the first time they were moving in to attack the Auxiliaries between Macroom and Dunmanway.
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The Column started its march in lashing rain and reached the ambush position at 8.15am. The ambush area was in the centre of a bleak and barren countryside, a bog land interspersed with heather and rocks. It was bad terrain for an ambushing unit because of the lack of roadside ditches and cover, but the Column had to attack in this area as there was no certainty of meeting the Auxiliaries anywhere except on this road between Kilmichael Cross and Gleann Cross which they never once failed to travel.
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The point of this road chosen for the attack was one and a half miles south of Kilmichael. Here the north-south road turns west-east for 150 yards and then resumes its north-south direction. There were no ditches on either side of the road but a number of scattered rocky eminences of varying sizes. No house was visible except one, 150 yards south of the road at the western entrance to the position.
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Before being posted, the whole Column was paraded and informed of the plan of attack. They were also told that the positions they were about to occupy allowed for no retreat and would be a fight to the end, All the positions were pointed out to the whole Column, so that each man knew where his comrades were and what was expected of each group.<o:p></o:p>
Details of the plan were as follows –


The Command Post was situated at the east end of the ambush facing the oncoming lorries. It was located behind a small wall and manned by three men- John Nyhan, Mick O’Herlihy and Jim Murphy. From here the ambush would be initiated.


No. 1 section consisting of of ten riflemen was placed behind a
large heather-covered rock, ten feet high, about ten yards from the
Command Post. This rock was a few yards from the northern edge of
the road. By moving up on the crest of the rock as soon as the action
commenced, the Section would have a good field of fire.


· No. 2 section commanded by Michael McCarthy and also of ten riflemen occupied a rocky eminence at the western entrance to the ambush position on the northern side of the road, and about one hundred and fifty yards from No. 1 section.


No the road under command of Stephen O’Neill. The section was split into two groups. O’Neill and six riflemen occupied a chain of rocks and their task was to prevent the Auxiliaries occupying firing positions here.<o:p></o:p>
· The remaining six riflemen of No. 3 section had to be used as an
insurance group. There was no guarantee the enemy would not include
three, four or more lorries. Some riflemen, no matter how few, had to
be ready to attack any lorries other than the first two. These men were placed sixty yards north of the ambush position, about twenty yards from the roadside. From here they could fire on a stretch of two hundred and fifty yards of the approach road.


Two unarmed scouts were posted one hundred and fifty and two hundred yards north of No. 2 section, from where they were in a position to signal the enemy approach when nearly a mile away. A third unarmed scout was a few hundred yards south of the command post to prevent surprise from the Dunmanway direction. All the positions were occupied at <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="9">9 a.m.</st1:time>
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From the nearby house food and a large bucket of tea was sent but there was not enough for all. The men's clothes had been drenched by the previous night's rain and now it was intensely cold as they lay on the sodden heather. The hours passed slowly. Towards evening the gloom deepened over the bleak Kilmichael countryside. Then at last at <st1:time Minute="5" Hour="16">4.05 p.m.</st1:time> a scout signalled the enemy's approach.
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The first lorry came round the bend into the ambush position at a fairly fast speed. The column commander Tom Barry, dressed in a military style uniform stepped onto the road with his hand up. The driver of the lorry, seeing the uniformed figure, gradually slowed down. When it was thirty-five yards from the volunteers command post a Mills bomb was thrown by Barry and simultaneously a whistle blew signalling the beginning of the assault. The bomb sailed through the air to land in the driver's seat of the un­covered lorry. As it exploded the rifle shots rang out. The lorry, its driver dead, moved forward until it stopped a few yards from the small stone wall in front of the command post. While some of the Auxiliaries were firing from the lorry, others were on the road and the fight became a hand-to-hand one. Revolvers were used at point blank range, and at times, rifle butts replaced rifle shots. The Auxiliaries were cursing and yelling as they fought, but the I.R.A. coldly outfought them. In less than five minutes all nine Auxiliaries were dead or dying sprawled around the road, except the driver and another who were lying lifeless in the front of the lorry.
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The second lorry had stopped and was coming under fire from No. 2 section. The Auxiliaries were lying in small groups on the road returning fire. Three riflemen from the command post, Murphy, Nyhan and O'Herlihy, moved in to attack the second party from the rear when they heard the Auxiliaries shout "We surrender". Some of them were seen to throw away their rifles. Firing stopped and three of the volunteers in No. 2 Section stood up. The Auxiliaries began firing again with revolvers and two of the three men fell.<o:p></o:p>


When he saw this Tom Barry gave the order, "Rapid fire and do not stop until I tell you". The Auxiliaries once again shouted "We surrender" but on this occasion the order was given "Keep firing on them. Keep firing, No. 2 Section. Everybody keep firing on them until the Cease Fire".


The small I.R.A. group on the road was now standing up, firing as they advanced to within ten yards of the Auxiliaries. When the cease fire order was finally given there was an uncanny silence as the sound of the last shot died away. Sixteen Auxiliaries were dead and one seriously wounded. Volunteers Michael McCarthy, Dunmanway and Jim Sullivan, Rossmore also lay dead, and Pat Deasy was dying.
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The lorries were set ablaze. Like two huge torches, they lit up the countryside and the corpse-strewn road. Some of the volunteers showed the strain of the ordeal through which they had passed, and a few appeared on the point of collapse because of shock. The entire column was ordered to drill and march and for five minutes the eerie drill continued. They then halted in front of the rock where Michael McCarthy and Jim O'Sullivan lay, where they presented arms as a tribute to the dead volunteers. Just thirty minutes after the opening of the ambush the column moved away to the south, intending to cross the Bandon river upstream from the British held <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Manch</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Eighteen men carried the captured enemy rifles slung across their backs. It started to rain again and the men were soon drenched. The rain continued as the I.R.A. marched through Shanacashel, Coolnagow, Balteenbrack and arrived in the vicinity of dangerous <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Manch</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. The <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Bandon</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> was crossed without incident and Granure, eleven miles south of Kilmichael, was reached by <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="23">11 p.m.</st1:time>
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Groundhog
29th November 2008, 09:25
Kilmichael
Part 2




The following day the volunteers remained at the cottage where they had billeted while reports of intense enemy activity came in. Large forces of British were gathering at Dunmanway, Ballineen, Bandon, Crookstown and Macroom before converging on Kilmichael. One unit of 250 steel-helmeted soldiers moving on to Dunmanway about <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:time Minute="0" Hour="12">noon</st1:time>, passed two hundred yards from the cottage. Other enemy units were moving at the same time a few miles away on to <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Manch</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. No risks were taken by them as it was nearly <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="13">1 p.m.</st1:time> when all their forces reached Kilmichael . The British were aware at <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="18">6 p.m.</st1:time> on the Sunday evening that the Auxiliaries had been ambushed, yet it was late evening on the following day before they ventured to the scene of the fight. British forces converging on Kilmichael, carried out large scale reprisals around the ambush area. Shops and homes and farms were destroyed at Kilmichael <st1:City><st1:place>Johnstown</st1:place></st1:City>, Inchigeela and other areas.

Groundhog
29th November 2008, 20:01
Battle of Julianstown<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

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Fought during the Rebellion of 1641 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Rebellion_of_1641) at Julianstown (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julianstown) near Drogheda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drogheda) on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1641" Day="29" Month="11">29th November 1641</st1:date> (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1641).<o:p></o:p>
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Led by Rory O'More (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rory_O%27More), the <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> insurgents moved south towards Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin) in an attempt to take the city. A hastily raised force of government troops,which was untrained and mostly composed of refugees from the fighting in the north, was sent to stop them. The two sides met at the bridge at Julianstown (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julianstown). <o:p></o:p>
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It would be an exaggeration to call the events that followed, a battle. The Irish rebels simply charged the soldiers, shouting their war cries. The soldiers attempted to fire in volleys, but lacking the co-ordination of trained men, they panicked when they saw the rebels bearing down on them. Many threw down their muskets and fled while the remainder were either killed or captured. <o:p></o:p>
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The consequences of this skirmish were far far outweighed the military significance. The rebel victory made them seem much more formidable than they were and helped to spread the rebellion to the rest of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. In turn the rebellion helped trigger the English Civil War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War) and brought about the state ofConfederate Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_Ireland).<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
5th December 2008, 22:35
Battle of Aughrim interpretative centre on the cards perhaps. The one at the Boyne is worth a look.



Ó Cuív wants Aughrim site developed into tourism draw
SEÁN Mac CONNELL
THE SITE of the Battle of Aughrim in Co Galway should be developed as an international tourism attraction, according to Minister for Gaeltacht and Community Affairs Éamon Ó Cuív.
Speaking at a book launch, the Minister backed local historians who want the site of the clash between Williamite and Jacobite forces on July 12th, 1691, developed in the same way as the site of the Battle of the Boyne.
The battle in which 7,000 people were slaughtered is still celebrated by the Orange Order as a decisive victory for Protestants that forever changed the course of Irish history.
The development of the site could also be used to secure an all-Irish identity and a focus for national reconciliation, he said.
"Involving unionists in the planning and other work involved would increase contacts and normalise the 32-county sense of identity, and add to the tremendous good done already by the preservation of the Battle of the Boyne site," said the Minister.
"Clearly, Aughrim is of strategic importance in our history, and it seems strange that it does not seem to have achieved the same recognition as other, less significant sites.
"It is a great cemetery. It contains the remains of the Irish who were left on the field for over a year, some of whom sank into the marsh," said Mr Ó Cuív.
"It also contains, at unknown sites, burial pits containing the remains of about 2,000 Williamites. A large number of these could well be the remains of the Ulster troops who were in the thick of the fighting."
Mr Ó Cuív said as well as providing a platform for reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants, the battlefield could become a tourist attraction on a par with Culloden in Scotland. "Aughrim is comparable to Culloden in respect of national strategic importance and its place in the national psyche, although the death toll at Aughrim was far higher," he said.
"The tourist potential of Aughrim is substantial and the knock-on benefits to the local economy would be significant.
"Currently visitors to Culloden number well over 300,000 per annum and it makes a very important contribution to the local economy.
"Interest in military history is growing in Europe and further afield, and I believe that we have something very special here that could be an international attraction," he said.
The Minister was launching The Battle of Aughrim 1691 by Michael McNally in Collins Barracks, Dublin.

Groundhog
5th December 2008, 22:37
Battle of Lisnagarvey<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

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The Battle of Lisnagarvey was fought near Lisburn, Co. Antrim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antrim) on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1649" Day="6" Month="12">6th December 1649</st1:date> (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1649). It was fought as part of the Cromwellian Wars between the Royalists (of whom many were Scots) and the Parliamentarians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roundheads).<o:p></o:p>
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You’ll recall that Oliver Cromwell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell) landed in Dublin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin) with his army the previous August. By then the only large town in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> in Parliamentarian hands was Derry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derry), commanded by Charles Coote who had managed to resist the Royalist/Confederate alliance through 1649 thanks to an alliance of convenience with Owen Roe O'Neill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Roe_O%27Neill) and the Ulster Irish army. Cromwell had almost immediately captured the town of <st1:City><st1:place>Drogheda</st1:place></st1:City> in September and, while he himself headed south with the bulk of the army, sent Colonel Robert Venables with a force of 5,000 men to conquer east <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region>.<o:p></o:p>
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Within days Venables had occupied Dundalk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dundalk), the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>port</st1:PlaceType> of Carlingford</st1:place> (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlingford) and a number of nearby castles. On Sept 28th the parliamentarian cavalry captured Newry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newry). The only serious resistance encountered by Venable's force occurred on 27th September, when some of Felim O'Neill's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felim_O%27Neill_of_Kinard) men launched a surprise attack on the Parliamentarian camp near Lisnagarvey. They were beaten off in short order. Shortly after, the Scottish garrison in Belfast (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belfast) also surrendered without a fight surrendering a considerable quantity of arms and ammunition to the Parliamentarians<o:p></o:p>
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In the meantime the only town in west <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> in Parliament’s hands was <st1:place>Derry</st1:place> held by Charles Coote. With the Paddies on the run in Ulster Coote moved out of <st1:place>Derry</st1:place> and headed for Coleraine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleraine). Some of the Protestant townsmen opened a gate and let the Roundheads in whereupon they proceeded to massacre the garrison, as Roundheads will. Coote's forces than joined Venable's at <st1:City><st1:place>Belfast</st1:place></st1:City>, where they began preparations for an attack onCarrickfergus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrickfergus).<o:p></o:p>
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In early December, Major General Monro's mostly Scottish army, 3,000 strong, joined forces with another Royalist, Lord Clandeboye. They marched north in an attempt to stop the Parliamentarian army from taking Carrickfergus. Learning of their approach, the Parliamentarians moved to intercept the Royalists, and the two armies met near Lisnagarvey on 6th December. The advance guards of the two armies became engaged first with the Royalists getting the worst of the battle. When the main Parliamentarian army came into sight, panic set in and most of the Royalists broke and fled the field. 1,500 retreating Royalists were killed in the pursuit. Most of their weapons and supplies were lost and Clandeboyle surrendered shortly after the battle while Monro fled to Enniskillen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enniskillen).<o:p></o:p>
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The rout at Lisnagarvey virtually ended Royalist resistance in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Carrickfergus surrendered to Coote a week later. Coote turfed the families of the Scottish garrison out of the town and into the winter cold. Early in 1650 Monro surrendered Enniskillen to Coote for £500 and returned to <st1:country-region><st1:place>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. <o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
24th April 2009, 20:15
Easter Rising<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
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<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1916" Day="24" Month="4">Monday 24th April 1916</st1:date><o:p></o:p>


The Dublin Division of the Irish Volunteers was organized in four battalions and deployed as follows;
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1st battalion under Comdt Ned Daly (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Daly_(Irish_revolutionary)), minus D Coy, occupied the Four Courts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Courts) and areas to the northwest to guard against attack from the west, principally from the Royal and Marlborough Barracks. D Coy, numbering 12 men led by Capt Seán Heuston (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Se%C3%A1n_Heuston), occupied the Mendicity Institution, across the river from the Four Courts. 1st Bn had a strength of 50 men when mustered at Blackhall St in the morning.
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2nd battalion numbered about 200 men under Comdt Thomas MacDonagh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_MacDonagh) who gathered at St. Stephen's Green (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Stephen%27s_Green) with orders to take Jacob's Biscuit Factory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob%27s) and Bishop Street, south of the city centre.
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Comdt Éamon de Valera (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89amon_de_Valera) commanded about 130 men of the 3rd battalion who occupied Boland's Bakery and a number of surrounding buildings to cover Beggars Bush Barracks and the main road and railway from Kingstown (Dún Laoghaire (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%BAn_Laoghaire)).
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Comdt Éamonn Ceannt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89amonn_Ceannt)'s 4th battalion, numbering about 100 men occupied the South Dublin Union to the southwest and defended against attack from the Curragh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curragh_Camp).
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A joint force of about 400 Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army gathered at Liberty Hall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_Hall) under the command of Comdt James Connolly (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Connolly). Of these, about 100 men and women of the ICA under Comdt Michael Mallin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Mallin) were deployed to St. Stephen's Green (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Stephen%27s_Green). A small detachment under Captain Seán Connolly were directed to seize the area around the City Hall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_Hall,_Dublin), next to Dublin Castle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Castle), including the offices of the Daily Express. The remainder was to occupy the General Post Office (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Post_Office_(Dublin)) as the headquarters battalion. Accompanying them were four other members of the Military Council: Patrick Pearse (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Pearse) (Commander-in-Chief (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commander-in-Chief)), Tom Clarke (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Clarke_(Irish_republican)), Seán Mac Dermott (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Se%C3%A1n_Mac_Diarmada) and Joseph Plunkett (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Mary_Plunkett).
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At midday a small team of Volunteers attacked the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Park) and disarmed the guards. The intention was to seize weapons and blow up the building as a signal that the rising had begun. They failed to obtain any arms and the explosion was not loud enough to be heard in the city. At the same time the Volunteers and Citizen Army forces throughout the city moved to occupy and secure their positions. Seán Connolly's unit made an assault on Dublin Castle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Castle), shooting dead a police sentry and overpowering the soldiers in the guardroom, but did not press home the attack. The Under-secretary, Sir Matthew Nathan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Nathan), who was in his office with Colonel Ivor Price, the Military Intelligence Officer, and A. H. Norway, head of the Post Office, was alerted by the shots and helped close the castle gates. The rebels occupied the Dublin City Hall and adjacent buildings. Mallin's detachment, which was joined by Constance Markiewicz (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constance_Markiewicz) occupied St. Stephen's Green (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Stephen%27s_Green), digging trenches and commandeering vehicles to build barricades. They took several buildings, including the Royal College of Surgeons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_College_of_Surgeons_in_Ireland), but did not make an attempt on the Shelbourne Hotel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shelbourne_Hotel), a tall building overlooking the park. Daly's men, erecting barricades at the Four Courts, were the first to see action. A troop of the 5th and 12th Lancers, part of the 6th Cavalry Reserve Regiment, was escorting an ammunition convoy along the north Quays when it came under fire from the rebels and took refuge in nearby buildings.

The headquarters battalion, led by Connolly, marched the short distance to O'Connell Street. They charged the GPO, expelled customers and staff, and took a number of British soldiers prisoner. Two flags were hoisted on the flag poles on either end of the GPO roof, the tricolour (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Ireland) and a green flag with the inscription 'Irish Republic'. A short time later, Pearse read the Proclamation of the Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proclamation_of_the_Irish_Republic) outside the GPO.<SUP><o:p></o:p></SUP>

Groundhog
24th April 2009, 20:19
When the rising began, Col. Henry Cowan, Assistant Adjutant General Irish Command, was the senior British Officer in Dublin. Colonel Kennard, the OC Dublin Garrison, could not be located and General Friend, C-in-C Ireland, was on leave in England. Cowan telephoned Marlborough Barracks and asked for a detachment of troops to be sent to Sackville Street to investigate the situation at the GPO. He then telephoned Portobello, Richmond and the Royal Barracks and ordered them to send troops to relieve Dublin Castle. Finally, he contacted the Curragh and asked for reinforcements to be sent to Dublin. A troop of the 6th ReserveCavalry Regt from Marlborough Barracks, proceeded down O'Connell Street. As it passed Nelson's Pillar, level with the GPO, the rebels opened fire, killing three cavalrymen and two horses and fatally wounding a fourth man. The cavalrymen retreated and were withdrawn to barracks.
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A patrol from the 3rd Bn, Royal Irish Regt, approaching the city from Richmond Barracks, encountered an outpost of Éamonn Ceannt's force under Section-Commander John Joyce in Mount Brown, at the north-western corner of the South Dublin Union. A party of twenty men under Lt George Malone was ordered to march on to Dublin Castle. They proceeded a short distance with rifles sloped and unloaded before coming under fire, losing three men in the first volley, then broke into a tan-yard opposite. Malone's jaw was shattered by a bullet as he went in. The CO, Lieutenant-Colonel R. L. Owens, brought up the remainder of his men from Richmond Barracks. A company with a machine gun was sent to the Royal Hospital overlooking the Union. The main body took up positions along the east and south walls of the Union, occupying houses and a block of flat, then opened fire on the rebel positions, forcing Joyce and his men to retreat across open ground. A party led by Lt. Alan Ramsey broke open a small door next to the Rialto gate, but Ramsey was shot and killed, and the attack was repulsed. A second wave led by Capt. Warmington charged the door but Warmington, too, was killed. The remaining troops, trying to break in further along the wall, were enfiladed from Jameson's distillery in Marrowbone Lane. Eventually the superior numbers and firepower of the "British" were decisive they forced their way inside and the small rebel force in the tin huts at the eastern end of the Union surrendered.
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During the night, government troops slipped into the Shelbourne Hotel, unnoticed by the rebels and unopposed, and gave themselves a commanding position overlooking St Stephen's Green.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Easter_rising_1916.jpg/800px-Easter_rising_1916.jpg

Map courtesy of Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Easter_rising_1916.jpg
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Groundhog
25th April 2009, 13:55
Easter Rising
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<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Month="4" Day="25" Year="1916">Tuesday 25th April 1916</st1:date>
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The military authorities began to reinforce the Dublin Garrison overnight. Trainloads of troops began arriving in the city from <st1:City><st1:place>Belfast</st1:place></st1:City> and the Curragh while more were preparing to sail from <st1:country-region><st1:place>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. By <st1:time Hour="5" Minute="20">5.20am</st1:time>, the whole Curragh Mobile Column of 1,600 men was in <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. Shortly afterwards, it was joined by the 1,000 men of the 25th Irish Reserve Infantry Brigade. By <st1:time Hour="16" Minute="20">4.20pm</st1:time> the number of troops available to the authorities had risen to around 3,000. The Lord Lieutenant of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, Lord Wimborne declared Martial Law in the city.
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At daybreak, the troops in the Shelbourne Hotel opened fire with a machine gun on the rebels in St. Stephen's Green. The Volunteers' position soon became untenable and by <st1:time Hour="12" Minute="0">noon</st1:time> they had withdrawn to the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>College</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Surgeons</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. Also from early morning, British troops began an assault on City Hall which they captured after some delay. With City Hall captured, the troops movedon to the Express offices in the afternoon. That fight lasted about an hour;<o:p></o:p>

From our position in front of the College we could see that a terrific fire was being directed against the Daily Express building: plaster and powdered brick were flying in showers from its facade. This fire was to cover the advance of our soldiers. But in spite of this we saw, more than once, one of the running figures pitch forward and fall. . . The fight seemed to last a considerable time - about an hour at its greatest intensity - before the firing began to wane."
A student in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Trinity</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> who witnessed the attack on the offices of the Daily Express
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Very little happened in the GPO at this stage. The men inside were disturbed by the wholesale looting that was going on in the streets about them. Inside, Padraic Pearse issued proclamations of a general uprising in the country and mutinies in the Irish Regiments of the British army. Jacob's Mill was surrounded by a mob of civilians shouting at the Volunteers to go to fight in <st1:country-region><st1:place>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. 15 year old Volunteer, Martin Walton absconded from his parents' home to join the garrison. As he was being left in a comrade shot a woman who tried to attack him. Outside Beggar's Bush Barracks a sentry shot two girls in looted clothes who he took to be rebels in disguise.
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In the evening, Capt Bowen-Colthurst arrested three civilians, including Francis Sheehy Skeffington. The three were shot next day.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
26th April 2009, 00:19
Easter Rising
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<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1916" Day="26" Month="4">Wednesday 26th April 1916</st1:date>
<st1:date Year="1916" Day="26" Month="4"></st1:date><o:p></o:p>
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Overnight a gunboat, the Helga, had sailed up the Liffey. At <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="8">8am</st1:time>, it began shelling Liberty Hall. The first shell missed but subsequent shells destroyed the building, which was actually empty except for a caretaker who legged it after the first shell.
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About <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="14">2pm</st1:time> the British began to shell the GPO.
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At the Mendicity Institute, on Usher's Quay, Seán Heuston's small body of men was holding out against about 400 government troops, holding up the enemy's progress from Kingsbridge to the Four Courts. The fighting was at extreme close quarters, and the soldiers began lobbing hand grenades into the building. When the rebels began to run out of ammunition, having suffered casualties and were about to be over run, Heuston decided to surrender. It was the first rebel garrison to surrender its position. One of the government troops at the Mendicity Institute was Pte John Chapman, an Australian on sick leave after having been in Gallipoli for three months. He made the mistake of returning to <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> on Easter Monday and was immediately ordered back to duty.
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The 26th also saw the battle at <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Mount </st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Street </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, to the south of the city. A handful of rebels was deployed between <st1:Street><st1:address>25 Northumberland Road</st1:address></st1:Street>, the road's schools and Clanwilliam House, covering the approaches from <st1:City><st1:place>Kingstown</st1:place></st1:City>.
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About <st1:time Minute="30" Hour="10">10.30am</st1:time>, four battalions of the Sherwood Foresters marched from <st1:City><st1:place>Kingstown</st1:place></st1:City> for <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. Many of them were recruits of a couple of months service. Some thought that they had landed in <st1:country-region><st1:place>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Two of the battalions broke away and marched for Kilmainham and two continued for the city. About 300 yards from <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Mount</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Street</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, they came under fire from <st1:Street><st1:address>25 Northumberland Road</st1:address></st1:Street>. Ten Sherwood Foresters fell in the first volley. After some confusion, the officers drew their swords and led a bayonet charge across the road towards the house, where many more were shot at point-blank range. Among the dead was a Capt Frederick Dietrichsen, from <st1:place>Nottingham</st1:place> whose wife and children had met him on the road a few minutes before. Those that got pat Number 25 were hit from the flank and rear by, among others, the Walshe brothers, Thomas and James, in Clanwilliam House. Thomas recalled the mound dead and wounded soldiers piled on <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Mount</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Street</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and firing his rifle until it was too hot to hold. In Boland's Mill, Eamon de Valera had decided against reinforcing the rebels around <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Mount </st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Street </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> because he expected an assault on his own position. Inevitably the men defending the houses began to suffer casualties. One of the first to die was Paddy Doyle followed by Dick Murphy. Thomas Walsh put a coat on a dressmaker's model that they had found in the house and put it in front of a window where it drew a lot of fire. At this stage dead and wounded soldiers and an occasional civilian were strewn all over the road. Priests, nuns and nurses were attempting to remove the injured.<o:p></o:p>
Eventually the Sherwood's were supplied with grenades and a machine gun. In No 25 Michael Malone was killed and the house evacuated. The schools on the road were over-run and in Clanwilliam House, the Walshes and their comrades ran out of ammunition. With the house on fire they decided to evacuate. A man named Reynolds stood up to fire his last shot and was killed in the process. The surviving rebels made their way to the basement from where they climbed through a window and made their way over walls and through the lanes to a factory on Baggot Street, where they settled in the for the night. The Walshe brothers spent a long time on the run after the rising, returning home to their parent's house in November 1916.
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At <st1:Street><st1:address>Lower Mount Street</st1:address></st1:Street> after the battle, the Sherwood Foresters' CO, Col Maconchy was greeted by cheering crowds as he surveyed the scene where he lost 230 men killed or wounded.

http://www.derbyshirelads.uwclub.net/Men/aa_dickson_memoirs.htm

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On the 26th, Gen Sir John Maxwell was sent from <st1:City><st1:place>London</st1:place></st1:City> with instructions to suppress the Rising using whatever means necessary.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
27th April 2009, 16:34
Easter Rising
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<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1916" Day="27" Month="4">Thursday 27th April 1916</st1:date>
<st1:date Year="1916" Day="27" Month="4"></st1:date><o:p></o:p>
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A day of general fighting across the city.
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Having captured the Mendicity Institute the government troops now laid siege to the Four Courts , where the garrison was commanded by Ned Daly. Armoured cars had been improvised from Guinness lorries covered with old boiler plate. House to house fighting was conducted along <st1:Street><st1:address>King Street</st1:address></st1:Street>.
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At the South Dublin Union, Eamonn Ceannt's garrison was under fierce attack. His 2i/c was Cathal Brugha who would be wounded several times before being evacuated on Friday.
<o:p></o:p>
In <st1:Street><st1:address>Marrowbone Lane</st1:address></st1:Street>, where Con Colbert commanded, Thursday saw British soldiers surrounding Jameson's distillery. The troops had entrenched themselves on both sides of the Canal and in a nearby field. At about <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="14">2pm</st1:time> the soldiers had advanced to the outer walls of the distillery. Inside ammunition was getting scarce and makeshift pikes were being manufactured from pieces of scrap steel and brush handles.
<o:p></o:p>
In the GPO, Pearse still maintained the fiction that the country was in general insurrection and that help was on the way from outside the city. One can only assume that he was trying to keep up morale. In the afternoon James Connolly was wounded by a ricochet which fractured of his left shinbone, leaving him confined to a stretcher on the floor.
<o:p></o:p>
At this stage the area around the GPO was under heavy artillery fire. <st1:Street><st1:address>Sackville street</st1:address></st1:Street> was ablaze and commentators reported molten glass from Clery's window flowing in the gutters. The blaze which started in a barricade quickly spread and forced the evacuation of the Imperial Hotel. Government troops attacked from the direction of the Abbey Theatre leading to a gunfight that lasted until the afternoon. Once it was over the looters descended on the area. One looter at least was shot by a sniper.
<o:p></o:p>
Ernest Jordison, head of British Petroleum in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, had taken his children to <st1:place>Drogheda</st1:place> to stay with relatives. Cycling home from Clontarf he noted that everything was still and quiet except for the guns being fired in the city. The weather was fine and the country was lighted up from the reflection in the skies of the fires as <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> burned.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
28th April 2009, 13:16
Easter Rising
<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1916" Day="28" Month="4">Friday 28th April 1916</st1:date>
<st1:date Year="1916" Day="28" Month="4"></st1:date><o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
In the early hours of Friday morning, General Sir John Maxwell arrived in <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> as commander-in-chief of the forces in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.
<o:p></o:p>
Dubliners were starting to feel the pinch as food stocks ran low. The basics were hard to find. One woman described her father coming home with two loaves of bread, the first food they had had in three days, which had to be divided amongst 14 people.
<o:p></o:p>
In Jameson's Distillery the rebels believed they were winning and that the Germans were advancing on <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. Through the day they were subjected to sporadic fire only.
<o:p></o:p>
In the Four Courts, Ned Daly's garrison wasn't doing well. The men on <st1:Street><st1:address>North King Street</st1:address></st1:Street> (about seven or eight strong) were cut off from Daly. One man had gone mad and had to be handcuffed to a bed. Their only possible escape route from the Four Courts was down <st1:Street><st1:address>Church Street</st1:address></st1:Street> where the South Staffordshire Regiment wqas concentrated.
<o:p></o:p>
On <st1:Street><st1:address>Sackville Street</st1:address></st1:Street> the shelling continued. The Metropole Hotel was set on fire. Oscar Traynor who commanded there received orders in the evening to withdraw to the GPO. When he arrived there he discovered that no such order had been given and he led his men back to the hotel. <o:p></o:p>
The first direct hit from a shell landed on the GPO at 3pm. The upper floors quickly became death traps and attempts to contain the fires proved fruitless when the water was cut off. At dusk, the garrison assembled in the main hall where Pearse ordered a withdrawal to Williams and Woods factory on <st1:Street><st1:address>Parnell Street</st1:address></st1:Street>. The evacuation began at <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="20">8pm</st1:time> in three groups. Pearse was last to leave, having ensured that no one was left behind. The groups were under heavy fire as they crossed to <st1:Street><st1:address>Moore Lane</st1:address></st1:Street>. 17 men were wounded in the withdrawal. During the evening, The O'Rahilly led a charge down <st1:Street><st1:address>Henry Street</st1:address></st1:Street>, with most of his men, including himself, being wounded or killed.
<o:p></o:p>
The rebels holed the walls of the houses in an attempt to work their way down <st1:Street><st1:address>Moore Street</st1:address></st1:Street>. Eventually they stopped at a house halfway down the street. Here the members of the Provisional Government who had escaped from the GPO, Pearse, James Connolly, Joseph Plunkett, Thomas Clarke and Seán MacDermott, assembled there.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
29th April 2009, 17:35
Easter Rising
<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1916" Day="29" Month="4">Saturday 29th April 1916</st1:date>
<st1:date Year="1916" Day="29" Month="4"></st1:date><o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
By Saturday morning the GPO was a burnt-out shell. Its former garrison continued to burrow their way up <st1:Street><st1:address>Moore Street</st1:address></st1:Street>. A fishmonger's shop at Number 16 Moore Street was chosen as the rebel headquarters and the leaders of the rebellion held a council of war here on Saturday morning. About <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="12">noon</st1:time> the decision was made to surrender.
<o:p></o:p>
At 12.45pm Nurse Elizabeth O'Farrell, a member of Cumann na Mban, left the house under a flag of truce and walked to the barricade at the junction of Moore Street and Parnell Street. Here she reported Pearse's wish to surrender. O'Farrell was made a prisoner and brought (ironically) to Tom Clarke's shop which was used as a temporary prison. At <st1:time Minute="45" Hour="14">2.45pm</st1:time> she was brought back to <st1:Street><st1:address>Moore Street</st1:address></st1:Street> and sent back to the rebels with a note and verbal message offering an unconditional surrender. She was to return within half an hour with a reply. About <st1:time Minute="30" Hour="15">3.30pm</st1:time> General Lowe took Pearse's surrender in <st1:Street><st1:address>Parnell Street</st1:address></st1:Street>. Pearse was put in a car and taken to meet General Maxwell. At <st1:time Minute="45" Hour="15">3.45pm</st1:time> he signed a general order instructing the rebels to surrender. Connolly, who had been taken to a Red Cross hospital in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Dublin </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, countersigned the order as Commander of the Irish Citizen Army.
<o:p></o:p>
The surrender came a s a surprise to many of the rebels who ahd been warmed for further action that evening. They were fell in on <st1:Street><st1:address>Moore Street</st1:address></st1:Street> and were marched up <st1:Street><st1:address>Sackville Street</st1:address></st1:Street> and formed into two lines where they left all their arms and ammunition. Officers with notebooks took down their names. Joseph Sweeney recalled one of the officers just looked at one of rebels and without asking him anything wrote down his name and then walked on. After he had gone somebody asked this fellow, 'Does that officer know you?' 'That's my brother,' he said."
<o:p></o:p>
The prisoners were herded into the <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Rotunda </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Gardens</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Anyone under the age of 18 was sent home (possibly with a note to their parents). Seán Harling was annoyed to be sent on his way with a clip on the ear from an irate Captain.
<o:p></o:p>
Nurse O'Farrell had been given surrender orders to be handed to the various posts. Accompanied by a priest, she went to meet Ned Daly at the Four Courts. The next morning she went first to St Stephen's Green, where fighting continued. She then made her way towards Boland's mill. Again there was still sniping in the area and her army driver refused to take her through. As she crossed <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Grand Canal</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName>Street</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> a man walking behind her was shot.<o:p></o:p>
She located Eamon de Valera in a dispensary that he was using as a headquarters. When O'Farrell arrived with the surrender order de Valera at first thought that it was a hoax, but finally agreed to surrender once he received orders from Thomas MacDonagh who was still in Jacob's Mill. The Tricolour at Jacob's was hauled down at about 5pm. MacDonagh having surrendered to General Lowe went to inform Eamonn Ceannt at the South Dublin Union.<o:p></o:p>
At <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="18">6pm</st1:time> a despatch arrived at Jameson's Distillery from Ceannt ordering a ceasefire. At <st1:time Minute="30" Hour="18">6.30pm</st1:time> Ceannt, with a priest and a British officer, entered the front gate of the distillery and spoke with the rebel leaders there. When he was finished Colbert fell his men in and told them they were surrendering unconditionally, but that anyone who wanted to escape could do so. Some did so before they were marched to Richmond Barracks. The men in the distillery were the last to surrender.
<o:p></o:p>
62 Rebels died in the fighting of Easter Week. The government forces lost 132 killed. About 250 people died, caught in crossfire or shelling or deliberately shot by combatants on either side.
<o:p></o:p>
All the rebel commanders, with the exception of De Valera, were executed by the military despite warnings from British and Irish politicians that it would inflame the population of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. And so it proved.
<o:p></o:p>
Padraig Pearse, Thomas Clarke and Thomas McDonagh were the first to be executed on May 3rd.
<o:p></o:p>
Joseph Plunkett, Willie Pearse, Edward Daly and Michael O’Hanrahan were executed on May 4th.
<o:p></o:p>
John McBride was executed on May 5th.
<o:p></o:p>
Eamonn Ceannt, Michael Mallin, Sean Heuston and Con Colbert were executed on May 8th.
<o:p></o:p>
Sean MacDiarmada and James Connolly were the last to die on May 12th.<o:p></o:p>

thebig C
30th April 2009, 09:13
From what regiment was the firing squad drawn?

Groundhog
1st May 2009, 22:34
From what regiment was the firing squad drawn?

Presumably since there were several executions, tehre were several Firing Squads. I don't know what units provided them though.

Groundhog
18th May 2009, 22:28
The Siege of Clonmel 1650<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>



<o:p></o:p>

On <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1650" Day="18" Month="5">the 18th May 1650</st1:date>, Mayor John White of Clonmel had a problem. The garrison of Clonmel had withdrawn towards <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City> the previous night after holding off Oliver Cromwell's Roundheads for almost three weeks. Poor John now had the unenviable task of negotiating the surrender of the town to the ogre who had massacred the populations of <st1:place>Drogheda</st1:place> and Wexford 6 months before. John went to Mass in St Mary's Church before getting on with what he considered would be his last act on earth.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
When last we left Oliver Cromwell and his chaps they were going into winter quarters in Dungarvan and surrounding areas. With the arrival of spring the Roundheads captured Kilkenny and drove the Earl of Castlehaven and 3000 men out of Carlow and back to <st1:place>Connacht</st1:place>. The remaining Protestant Royalists also switched allegiance in April. Cromwell met a delegation headed by Michael Boyle, the Dean of Cloyne, in Cashel. After two days of negotiation, a treaty was signed under which the Protestant forces in Ireland undertook not to act against the interests of the English Commonwealth, while Cromwell guaranteed the security of their lives and property. That left the Parliamentarians with two Royalist garrisons in <st1:State><st1:place>Munster</st1:place></st1:State> – <st1:City><st1:place>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City> and Clonmel. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
Clonmel was defended by 1200 men commanded by Hugh Dubh O'Neill, a nephew of Owen Rowe O'Neill. Hugh was a veteran of the Spanish Wars and held the rank of Major-General in the Confederate army of Ulster. He took over command of the Clonmel garrison in December 1649. Although his forces had been somewhat reduced by plague, the garrison was reinforced by troops ejected from Cashel and Kilkenny during February and March 1650. The town itself was protected on its western, northern and eastern sides by walls over twenty feet high and six feet thick. Its southern side was protected by the River Suir and some minor defensive works. The walls had additional earthwork reinforcement making them difficult to breach with artillery, and a deep ditch ran around the outside as a defence against mining.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
On Saturday 27th April the main Parliamentarian force of about 10,000 men arrived to the north of Clonmel, closing off the town. There were a few days delay while patrols were sent out to subdue the garrisons of outlying forts at Poulkerry (garrison massacred), Ballydine (garrison legged it) and Fethard (surrendered). About the beginning of May the bombardment of the North Wall of the town began from what is now <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Prior</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Park</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> hill. The field artillery that the troops had brought with them wasn't heavy enough so more delay ensued while siege artillery was brought overland from Kilkenny. In the meantime siege works were built and the garrsison sallied forth regularly to attack the Roundheads. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
By 16 May, the heavy siege guns had arrived and were situated 200 yards from the North Gate on an elevated position on Gallows Hill, the Prior Park/ Shamrock Hill area. Cromwell was limited to bombarding the northern wall because the ground to the east and west was too boggy to support the weight of his artillery and the south was protected by the river. Unlike the successful assaults on Drogheda, Wexford and Kilkenny, only a single breach was made at Clonmel in the area of what is now Short Street, which allowed Hugh O'Neill to concentrate the defenders at the obvious point of attack. The breach was wide enough to allow an assault by the morning of 17th May. Cromwell's plan was to send infantry into the breach to fight their way into the town and capture the North Gate which was about 50 to 60 metres east of the breach. Cromwell and his cavalry would be waiting to charge in as soon as the gate was opened. Unknown to Cromwell, however, O'Neill had strengthened the defences immediately behind the breach. A V-shaped inner fortification of earth and timber had been constructed around the weak point. Its walls were about six feet high and lined with musketeers. The walls converged at a point about eighty yards from the breach where two cannon were placed. When the English soldiers stormed through the breach, they found themselves in an area enclosed by O'Neill's fortification with no shelter from the Irish musketeers and cannon. Unable to advance further and trapped by the weight of numbers of the troops still coming through the breach, the Parliamentarians were cut down by musket fire and chain shot fired at point-blank range. Up to 1,000 infantrymen were killed before the survivors retreated from the breach.
<o:p></o:p>
Cromwell tried to rally his troops for another assault, but the infantry refused to enter the breach a second time. Instead they called upon Cromwell to send in the cavalry, who were protected by iron helmets and body armour. Regimental cavalry commanders immediately volunteered to lead the assault. At around 3 p.m., Colonels Culme and Sankey led a column of dismounted cavalrymen in a second assault on the fatal breach. The Irish defenders were quickly driven from the main breach and back to the inner fortification. Fierce hand-to hand fighting continued for three hours but the English were unable to penetrate the Irish defence. They finally retreated after most of their officers and hundreds more troopers had been killed. Sankey lost a hand in the assault but survived.
<o:p></o:p>
Estimates of the number of English soldiers killed at the assault on Clonmel vary between 1,500 and 2,500 men. It was the first major defeat inflicted on the New Model Army and was by far the greatest loss of life it had sustained in a single action. Cromwell could not afford to risk another assault. He was faced with the prospect of a long siege to starve O'Neill into submission. His return to England would have to be delayed if he were to avoid the dishonour of returning under the cloud of defeat.
<o:p></o:p>
Although O'Neill had repulsed the English attack, several hundred of his men had been killed and his ammunition was exhausted. Almost no food remained for the garrison and people of the town. Realising that any help from Ormond was unlikely to arrive in time, O'Neill decided to evacuate his troops. On the night of the 17th, the garrison slipped away under cover of darkness, crossing the River Suir to the south of the town where no English troops were posted. Next day, John White, the Mayor of Clonmel, sent a message to Cromwell asking for terms. Anxious to bring the costly siege to an end and not realising that O'Neill and his soldiers had gone, Cromwell granted generous terms, guaranteeing the lives and property of the townspeople. Although he was furious when he learned that White had outwitted him, Cromwell nevertheless kept to the terms.<o:p></o:p>

Cromwell sent cavalry in pursuit of O'Neill's column, which was making for Waterford by the road over the Comeraghs to Rathgormack. Although a number of stragglers were caught and massacred at Boola Bridge, the main body escaped. On arriving at Waterford, however, O'Neill and his troops were refused entry into the town by the governor, Thomas Preston, a former Confederate general and rival of Owen Roe O'Neill, who claimed that he did not have food to spare for the Ulstermen. O'Neill was obliged to disperse his troops into small groups and order them to make their way back to Ulster as best they could.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
23rd May 2009, 12:37
The 1798 Rebellion<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>



vvv<o:p></o:p>

The 1798 Rebellion was inspired by the revolutions in America and France. It originated in opposition to the Protestant ascendancy which had ruled the country since the end of the Williamite Wars. The catalyst for the rebellion was the formation of the Society of United Irishmen in 1791, which, as its name suggests united Irish Catholics, dissenting and liberal Protestants in opposition to the government of Britain. With the outbraek of war between France and Britain in 1793, the United Irishmen formulated a plan to start a rebellion in conjunction with military assistance from France. Theobald Wolfe Tone travelled from exile in America to France in early 1796 to negotiate with the French government for an invasion force. 15,000 men were sent under command of Gen. Hoche to land at Bantry Bay but the fleet was prevented from landing by storms.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
In response to the United Irishmen collaborating with the French, the British imposed martial law in parts of Ireland in 1797. The military was brutal in putting down suspected treason, so much so that they started a minor rebellion in Cahir, Co. Tipperary. Loyalists joined the militias that would fight the rebellion. Much of the United Irish leadership was arrested in early 1798. Its remaining leaders, Neilson and Lord Edward Fitzgerald planned a rebellion for 23rd May without French aid. Fitzgerald was arrested on May 18th. He was fatally injured during his arrest and died on June 4th.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The plan for the rebellion was to capture the Dublin garrisons and for the surrounding counties to rise in order to prevent government reinforcements from the country side moving to Dublin. The signal for the rebellion was to be the interception of the mail coaches travelling from Dublin on the night of May 23rd. The plans miscarried however. The assembly areas for the Dublin rebels were betrayed by informers and occupied by soldiers an hour before the designated time. In addition only one mail coach was stopped, in Naas. Consequently the 1798 Rebellion got off to an inauspicious and sputtering start.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
24th May 2009, 00:02
24th May 1798
Co. Kildare<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>


Ballymore-Eustace<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

The Battle of Ballymore-Eustace began about 1 am on May 24th 1798. The town, situated on the Wicklow/Kildare border, had a garrison of about 50 men from the 9th Regt of Dragoons and the Tyrone, Antrim and Armagh Militias billeted on the population. Approximately 120 men had been withdrawn just the day before.<o:p></o:p>
The United Irishmen co-ordinated their attacks so that all the houses in which the soldiers were billeted were attacked simultaneously. All went according to plan except for the failure to take the garrison headquarters which became a rallying point for the troops. The attack continued for two hours but the rebels were unable to take the building and lost many men. Eventually the Dragoons charged out of their positions and routed the United Irishmen. <o:p></o:p>
About 100 United Irishmen died in the battle along with 12 government troops. Several houses were destroyed and the Protestant church burnt down.<o:p></o:p>


Naas<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

A force of over 1,000 rebels, led by Michael Reynolds attacked Naas at about 2.30am. At the time Naas was the strongest garrison in Kildare, numbering about 250 men. The rebel attack was launched from three directions, achieving some surprise and driving the garrison back to the barracks. A series of fierce attacks on the barracks ensued until the military managed to bring two artillery pieces to bear on the rebels after the demolition of several buildings. Under artillery fire, the rebels began to waver. A cavalry charge caused the rebels to retreat. The United Irishmen lost about 135 men and the government troops about 25.<o:p></o:p>


Prosperous<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Prosperous, Co. Kildare was attacked by a force of 600 United Irishmen at 2 o'clock in the morning. The town was garrisoned by the Cork and Armagh Militias and part of a Welsh Cavalry unit. A small force climbed the walls of the Militia Barracks, killed the sentries and opened the gate. The main force surrounded the barracks and prevented an attempt by the militia to break out The militia commander, Captain Swayne, was killed in the attempt. The garrison was trapped in the upper rooms of the barracks which was set ablaze. The soldiers were finally forced to jump from the windows onto the waiting pikes below. About 50 militiamen were killed. Prosperous remained in rebel hands until June 19th.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>


Kilcullen<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

As news of the rebellion spread local rebels began to muster in an old graveyard south of Kilcullen. Here they were joined by some survivors from Ballymore-Eustace bringing the number of rebels to 200. About daybreak they were spotted by the military under command of Gen. Dundas whose HQ was just a few miles away in Castle Martin.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Dundas</st1:place></st1:City> led an attack by 120 men on the rebels. 80 cavalry charged the graveyard but were driven off with the loss of 30 men by the rebels who had entrenched themselves behind the ditches and walls with their pikes. The Loyalist infantry covered the retreat of the cavalry over Kilcullen bridge.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
By early morning, the United Irismen numbers had swelled to 1,000. It was decided to garrison Turnpike Hill in order to cut the Loyalist troops off from reinforcements from <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. About <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="9">9 am</st1:time><st1:City><st1:place>Dundas</st1:place></st1:City> sent a party of cavalry towards the hill with the intention of luring the rebels off it. This ruse succeeded and the United Irishmen were drawn onto government infantry who fired several volleys into the United Irish ranks. The rebels withdrew to the river where they were routed by a cavalry charge. Around 150 men were killed.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
Despite this <st1:City><st1:place>Dundas</st1:place></st1:City> ordered a general withdrawal to Naas by all forces in Kildare. The remaining Kilcullen rebels surrendered to <st1:City><st1:place>Dundas</st1:place></st1:City> at Knockaulin Hill on May 27th.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
25th May 2009, 00:12
25th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Carlow<o:p></o:p>


The Battle Of Carlow<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

The United Irishmen of Co. Carlow assembled outside the town on the night of the 24th May under command of Michael Heydon, a local cobbler. Numbering about 1,200 men they entered the town unopposed. As they marched down <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:Street><st1:address>Tullow St</st1:address></st1:Street> the rebels were ambushed by government troops, concealed in the houses along the street, who poured volley after volley into the United Irish ranks. The rebels took cover in unoccupied houses which were set alight by the military. Approximately 500 men, women and children, rebels and innocent civilians, died in the fighting. In subsequent days surviving United Irishmen were rounded up and summarily executed by the government forces. In all the Battle of Carlow resulted in around 650 deaths. The dead rebels were buried in a mass grave in an old sand pit outside the town.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>


Co. Wicklow<o:p></o:p>
Carnew Massacre<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

In Carnew Co. Wicklow, news of the rebellion prompted the local militia to take 38 United Irish prisoners that they were holding in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Carnew</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> out and execute them. Anyone that watches the programme Who Do You Think You Are on television will recall that Graham Norton's ancestors took part in the massacre. Wexford rebels under Anthony Perry burned Carnew on June 7th in revenge.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
26th May 2009, 15:12
26th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Meath<o:p></o:p>


The Battle Of Tara Hill<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p></o:p>
Following the beginning of the rebellion the United Irishmen of Co. Meath began to assemble at the Hill of Tara. By the morning of the 26th they numbered some 4,000 men and women. During the day a party of rebels ambushed the baggage party of the Reay Fencibles, a Scottish militia regiment travelling from Cavan to <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>. The rebels succeeded in making off with the Scots' baggage but it proved a short-lived victory.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
In the evening the Reay Fencibles and two troops of Yeomanry attacked the United Irishmen positions on Tara Hill. The rebels took up positions behind the ditches and stone walls on the hill but they were out-gunned by the Scots. The rebels broke under a bayonet charge and were dispersed by the cavalry. About 400 United Irishmen died in the fighting and approximately 30 government troops.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
One of the dead United Irishmen was a woman named Molly Weston. Her four brothers also died in the battle. Molly led several charges of pikemen against the Fencibles before she died.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The defeat of the rebels at <st1:place>Tara</st1:place> probably checked the spread of the rebellion. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>


Co. Wicklow<o:p></o:p>
The Massacre at Dunlavin Green<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

A few days before the outbreak of the rebellion, the militia commander in Dunlavin paraded his men and informed them that he had knowledge that several among them were members of the United Irishmen. He called on those men to confess and 28 did so in the hope of receiving clemency. The men were placed in detention.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
When news of the rebellion reached Dunlavin on the 26th these prisoners were taken to the village green and along with 8 civilians were executed in batches of five by firing squad. The intention was to discourage rebellion in the area and revenge for the deaths of comrades in Ballymore-Eustace.<o:p></o:p>

Truck Driver
26th May 2009, 16:52
And indeed there is a monument to the dead from 1798 on the village green
in Dunlavin

Possibly you might have taken a picture of it, Groundhog. Thought I might have
seen it in the "monuments" thread you kicked off... ?

Any DF personnel en route to Coolmooney from the DFTC would pass right by the
monument in question...

Groundhog
27th May 2009, 14:01
And indeed there is a monument to the dead from 1798 on the village green
in Dunlavin

Possibly you might have taken a picture of it, Groundhog. Thought I might have
seen it in the "monuments" thread you kicked off... ?

Any DF personnel en route to Coolmooney from the DFTC would pass right by the
monument in question...

There's one in that thread but it isn't one of mine. I got soem shots of the Croppy Grave in Carlow at the weekend that I must post ASAP.

Groundhog
27th May 2009, 14:59
27th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

Co. Wexford<o:p></o:p>

<o:p> </o:p>

The Battle Of Oulart Hill<o:p></o:p>

vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p> </o:p>
On the evening of May 26th a patrol of 20 or so of the Camolin Cavalry encountered a force of 100 rebels at the <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Harrow</st1:place> in Co. Wexford. The rebels were led by Fr John Murphy, the local curate and the cavalry by Lt Bookey. The government troops were returning from a search for a United Irishmen who's house they had burnt. A skirmish ensued in which two cavalrymen died. This skirmish ignited the rebellion in Wexford with patrols of yeomanry burning houses and killing suspected rebels while the locals set about killing loyalists and burning their houses. Word was sent to Wexford town for reinforcements from the North Cork Militia.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
The militia reached the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Oulart</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> on the afternoon of May 27th to find around 1,000 men women and children camped on Oulart Hill. The troops set fire to some houses at the foot of the hill in the hope of drawing the rebels out of cover. This did not materialise although large numbers of people started to leave the rebel camp hoping to avoid a fight. The cavalry contingent with the militia blocked this withdrawal and the militia advanced up the hill to engage the rebels, firing a couple of ragged volleys.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
Unknown to the troops, the rebels had placed an ambush party in cover at right angles to their lines on the hill. When the militiamen had advanced into the killing zone, the rebels loosed a volley at close range and decimated the militiamen. The yeomanry fled after losing one man to gunfire and the infantry was pursued for several miles with only 4 men escaping of the 110 who had advanced up the hill. Rebel losses were six killed.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
After the battle north Wexford rose in general rebellion. The military and the loyalist population withdrew to the main towns of Gorey, Wexford and Enniscorthy.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
28th May 2009, 17:31
28th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Wexford<o:p></o:p>


The Battle Of Enniscorthy<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p></o:p>
On the evening of the Battle of Oulart Hill, the United Irishmen were led by Fr John Murphy, Edward Roche, George Sparks and Morgan Byrne north to Carrigrua Hill, four miles east of Ferns, where they camped for the night. During the night and the following morning large numbers of people from the surrounding countryside joined them, swelling the rebel ranks to 7,000 people. It should of course be noted that not all these people were fighting men or even United Irishmen. On the morning of the 28th they resumed their march north to Camolin and on to Enniscorthy by <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:time Hour="12" Minute="0">noon</st1:time>. The town was defended by 300 government troops equipped with muskets but no artillery.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
About 1 pm, the rebels drove a herd of cattle through the towns’s Duffry gate. The panicked animals created disorder among the loyalist defenders, allowing the attackers enter the town. A three hour long battle ensued in which much of the town was set ablaze. Anybody suspected of loyalist sympathies was killed and many personal scores and old emnities settled. Eventually the surviving loyalists abandoned the town and fled towards Wexford.
<o:p></o:p>
With the town destroyed the rebel leaders set up camp on Vinegar Hill. Here they sat down to plan their next move. There was a majority opinion that they should attack New Ross. However that evening two members of the Catholic gentry arrived in camp from Wexford. They were Edward Fitzgerald and John Colclough, both of whom had been arrested two days before as suspected members of the United Irishmen. The garrison commander in <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Wexford</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Town</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> had sent them with a message for the rebels that they should disperse and return to their homes. The rebel leaders decided to lead their army southwards to attack <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Wexford </st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Town</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.



Co. Kildare<o:p></o:p>

The Capture Of Rathangan<o:p></o:p>

vvv<o:p></o:p>
Throughout the day of Thursday 24th May, rebels gathered near Rathangan attacking and burning some houses. A detachment of the South Cork Militia commanded by a Capt Langton was in occupation. They however had been ordered to Sallins. The local Yeomanry captain, one James Spencer, persuaded Capt Langton to stay in the town. That night a large rebel force attacked the town from two different directions and were driven off by the troops with the loss of 13 rebels. Langton and the militia marched to Sallins next day. At <st1:time Hour="15" Minute="0">3 pm</st1:time> on 26th May 5,000 rebels, led by John Doorley, attacked the town, killing 19 Loyalists including James Spencer. Those who survived fled to Edenderry.
<o:p></o:p>
At dawn on Monday 28th May, a force under Lt. Colonel Mahon marched from Tullamore to recapture Rathangan. He encountered rebels outside the town and killed 15 of them. He failed to capture the town, however, and lost 3 men in the attack. Around <st1:time Hour="8" Minute="0">8 am</st1:time> <st1:City><st1:place>Mahon</st1:place></st1:City> was reinforced and once more attacked the town. Once again his troops were repulsed. This time they lost 4 killed and 2 wounded. Around <st1:time Hour="11" Minute="0">11am</st1:time> reinforcements under a Col Longfield arrived. They included detachments of dragoons, the City of <st1:City><st1:place>Cork Militia</st1:place></st1:City> and 2 artillery pieces. After a short artillery bombardment, the defenders fled and were pursued by the cavalry who killed around 50 of them. Longfield reported the next day that he took no prisoners. Some of the captured rebels were hanged in the main street, including their leader Edward Molloy.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
29th May 2009, 08:55
29th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Kildare<o:p></o:p>


The Gibbet Rath Massacre<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p></o:p>
On May 27th Maj-Gen. Sir James Duff left <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> on a forced march to <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> with a force of 600 men, mainly of the Dublin Militia. He also had seven artillery pieces with him. His objectives were to reopen communications between <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place> and to put down any rebellion he met en route. His men arrived in Monasterevin early on the morning of the 29th where they discovered that many rebels were surrendering with the promise of amnesty. The Dubliners were unimpressed however as they had been finding the bodies of dead Loyalists on their journey including the son of the commander of the Dublin Militia and Duff's own nephew. Duff brought his men to Gibbet Rath on the Curragh which was the designated spot for the rebels to gather and surrender their arms. By the time they got there between 1,000 and 2,000 rebels had assembled. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
Duff ordered the rebels to stack their arms. Once they had done so the soldiers began firing into the crowd of rebels and the cavalry started to hack at them with their swords. Several contradictory reasons have been put forward as to why the massacre began. Some claim that Duff simply ordered the killings, others that some rebels opened fire first. Another account claims that one rebel merely cleared his musket by firing in the air and panicked the troops. Whatever the cause, approximately 350 rebels were killed at Gibbet Rath. Capt John Giffard, who's son's body they had found the day before, claimed that they killed 500 rebels and burned Kildare town. Duff marched on to <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> where he received a hero's welcome next day.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
30th May 2009, 00:08
30th May 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Wexford<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Three Rocks<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>
With most of the countryside of <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place><st1:PlaceType>county</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Wexford</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> in rebel hands the loyalist population was now confined to the towns of Wexford, New Ross and Bunclody. On May 29th Gen Fawcett, commander of the garrison in <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Fort</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Duncannon</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, set out with 200 men to reinforce Wexford town. An artillery column of 100 men marched later in the day with orders to RV with him at Taghmon. Fawcett's men camped in Taghmon overnight while the artillery arrived there at <st1:time Hour="2" Minute="0">2am</st1:time> on the 30th. For some reason the artillery column did not make contact with Fawcett but marched on alone.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The government troops were apparently unaware of the presence of the rebels in south Wexford. A force of between 1,000 and 2,000 United Irishmen commanded by Thomas Cloney was stationed at Forth mountain, about 5 miles west of Wexford town and on the line of march of the artillery column. Cloney deployed his men in ambush positions in an area called Three Rocks at the eastern end of the hill. As the government troops entered the killing zone early in the morning of May 30th they were met by a volley of musketry and a massive charge by pikemen. 70 soldiers were killed in minutes and the remainder fled. The rebels captured the artillerymen's two howitzers. The fleeing soldiers reached Taghmon a couple of hours after the battle. Fawcett, with his artillery support lost, retreated to Duncannon.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
In Wexford Gen Maxwell received reports of the fighting to the west and sent out a cavalry patrol. This patrol ran into the rebels forming up with their new cannon and ready to march on Wexford. The cavalry withdrew, losing an officer in the process. With news of the defeat at Three Rocks, rebels armed with cannon and massing to the north of the town, the corporation sent out envoys to negotiate a surrender. Meanwhile the garrison legged it to Duncannon. The United Irishmen entered the town unopposed, rounded up any loyalists they found and set up a Committee of Public Safety based on the French Revolutionary model. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The United Irishmen remained in control of Wexford until the middle of June. The occupation was marked by the massacre of 90 loyalist prisoners on <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Wexford</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> on 20th June. <o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>


Co. Wicklow<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Newtownmountkennedy<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p></o:p>
Newtownmountkennedy was attacked by a force of some 800 rebels on the morning of the 30th May. The town was defended by about 140 government troops of the Ancient Britons, the Antrim Militia, and local yeomanry. The rebels set the stables of the cavalry ablaze along with some houses. However they were driven off by the military whose commander, Capt Burgany was killed, and two lieutenants wounded.

Groundhog
30th May 2009, 20:35
Leaders of the Wexford Rebellion 1<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

Bagenal Harvey<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

A Wexford Protestant, Harvey was a member of the United Irishmen. Arrested on May 26th he was held in Wexford Gaol until freed when the town was captured by the rebels. <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Harvey</st1:place></st1:City> was appointed Commander in Chief of the army and commanded at New Ross. He resigned after the defeat there and returned to Wexford where he was appointed President of the town committee. He and John Colclough were arrested on Great Saltee Island at the end of June and returned to Wexford where they were hanged on June 28th.


Fr. John Murphy<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

<o:p></o:p>
Born at Tincurry, Co. Wexford in 1753 and ordained for the priesthood in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Spain</st1:place></st1:country-region> in 1779. In 1785 he became Parish Priest at Boolavogue near Enniscorthy. Fr Murphy wasn't a United Irishman and in fact he was opposed to rebellion, encouraging his parishioners to loyalty to the crown. However once his parishioners attacked the Yeomen at the Harrow Fr Murphy led them in revolt. At first the rebels were victorious at Oulart and Enniscorthy, then defeat followed at Vinegar Hill. Fr Murphy led his surviving troops out of Wexford and into Co. Carlow where another defeat followed at Kilcumney Hill. Separated from his followers, Murphy and a companion, James Gallagher, made for Tullow where relatives of the priest lived. They were captured near Tullow on July 2nd and executed in the town square. Murphy was flogged, hung, decapitated and his body burnt in a barrel of pitch.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
1st June 2009, 09:30
1st June 1798
Co. Wexford<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>


The <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Battle</st1:place></st1:City> of Newtownbarry<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Newtownbarry was the 18th century name for Bunclody.
<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The three weeks from the beginning of June mark the second phase of the rebellion in Co. Wexford. The leadership of the United Irishmen decided to break their forces into two separate armies, one to break out of Wexford to the west through New Ross and the other north towards <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>.
<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
Fr. Mogue Kearns led 5,000 men against the garrison of Newtownbarry. The garrison had put outposts facing the rebel line of advance in front of the town. The rebels occupied high ground west of the town and, using an artillery piece captured at Three Rocks, drove the defenders back to the town. The rebel infantry followed hot on their heels and the government troops withdrew across the bridge into Co. Carlow.
<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
Here it fell to pieces for the rebels. The leaders obviously lost control because they failed to guard the bridge and their troops began looting in the assumption that the battle was won. However there were still government troops trapped within the town and these opened fire from the cover of houses. Meanwhile the retreating troops across the bridge reformed and launched a counter attack back into the town. The rebels were routed and lost 400 men in the fighting. What had been a virtually bloodless victory became a bloody defeat.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
3rd June 2009, 22:06
Leaders of the Wexford Rebellion<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Fr. Mogue Kearns<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Mogue Kearns was born in Kiltealy into a farming family.
<o:p></o:p>
After his ordination he was appointed curate of Balyna, Co. Kildare but was dismissed by his Bishop for his political activities. Returning to Wexford, he lived in Enniscorthy and joined the Insurgents at the start of the rebellion. He fought at Enniscorthy on 28th May and at Newtownbarry on the 1st of June. He was wounded at Vinegar Hill and carried by his comrades back to Wexford. When his wound had healed he joined a large number of insurgents who were hiding in Killoughram Woods.

<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Kearns</st1:place> was captured and executed in Edenderry, Co. Offaly, on <st1:date Year="1798" Day="12" Month="7">12th July 1798</st1:date>. He and Anthony Perry, hung at the same time, were buried together in the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>cemetery</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Monasteroris</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> where a large Celtic cross now marks their grave.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>


John Kelly<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Not a lot known about John Kelly except he came from Killane, fought in the rising for a week, was in the battles at Three Rocks and New Ross where he was badly wounded at the Three Bullet Gate. Taken to Wexford he was captured when the town fell to <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Gen</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Lake</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. John Kelly was executed at the end of June and immortalised in song a century later as Kelly, the Boy from Killane. Incidentally Three Bullet Gate in 1798 is reputedly the bearna baoil referred to in Amhrán na Bhfiann.<o:p></o:p>


Fr. Michael Murphy<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Michael Murphy was born in Co. Wexford, probably near Oulart. He was ordained in Wexford in 1785 and then went to <st1:country-region><st1:place>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. He later became parish priest of Ballycanew where he joined the rebellion when his church was ransacked by the yeomen, on <st1:date Year="1798" Day="27" Month="5">27th May 1798</st1:date>. He was killed at the battle of Arklow on <st1:date Year="1798" Day="9" Month="6">June 9th 1798</st1:date> leading an attack on a gun position which defended the western approach to the town and is buried at Castle Ellis.<o:p></o:p>


Anthony Perry<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Anthony Perry was a Protestant, a member of the United Irishmen and their organiser for <st1:place>North Wexford</st1:place>. He lived near Inch. He was also Lieutenant in the Coolgreany Yeomen Cavalry Corps. Arrested about 23rd May 1798 he was held in Gorey. Bagenal Harvey was reputedly arrested due to information supplied by Perry under torture. Anthony Perry and Fr. Mogue Kearns were captured at Clonbollogue, Co. Offaly on the 12th July and hanged at Edenderry.<o:p></o:p>


Fr. Philip Roche<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Philip Roche was born in Monagrena near Boolavogue in 1760. He was ordained in Wexford on <st1:date Year="1785" Day="17" Month="5">17th May 1785</st1:date>. He was curate in Ballyfad near Gorey where he came into contact with the United Irishmen in the early 1790s.<o:p></o:p>
At the outbreak of the rebellion Roche immediately joined the insurgents. After the capture of Enniscorthy on 28th May, he served on a committee of twelve that controlled the affairs of the insurgent camp on Vinegar Hill.
<o:p></o:p>
After the Insurgent defeat at New Ross, Roche was elected commander-in-chief, replacing Bagenal Harvey. On 19th June, as government forces approached, Roche broke camp at Lacken Hill and ordered a retreat to the Three Rocks outside Wexford town. From there, the rebel forces engaged Sir John Moore’s troops at Goff’s Bridge.<o:p></o:p>
After the defeat at Vinegar Hill on 21st June, Roche decided to surrender himself in Wexford town and to try to obtain terms of surrender for the insurgent forces. He was jailed in Wexford, court-martialled on 24th June, and on June 25th, at <st1:time Minute="0" Hour="11">11 o’clock</st1:time> he and eight others were executed on Wexford bridge.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
4th June 2009, 00:03
4th June 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Wexford<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Tubberneering<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

Tubberneering is 5 miles south west of Gorey.
<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The battle was actually an ambush of a force of government troops, commanded by Lt-Col Walpole, which was attempting to advance into Co. Wexford as part of an offensive against the rebels. Walpole's troops numbered 400 men consisting of yeomanry and militia and also a troop of regular cavalry, from the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards. The ambush took place in a narrow ravine and resulted in the deaths of 100 men, including Walpole, and the capture of three cannon.
<o:p></o:p>
<o:p></o:p>
The defeat at Tubberneering caused some panic in loyalist ranks and the town of Arklow was subsequently evacuated. The United Irishmen failed to capitalise on this however and instead of advancing to take Arklow they merely occupied Gorey. By the time they resumed the advance into Wicklow, Arklow had been reoccupied.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
4th June 2009, 23:28
Government Commanders in the Wexford Rebellion<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>


Gen Sir John Moore<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

John Moore was born in Glasgow on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Year="1761" Day="13" Month="11">13th November 1761</st1:date>, the son of a doctor.
<o:p></o:p>
He joined the Army in 1776 as an Ensign in the 51st Foot. From 1778 to 1783 he fought in <st1:place>North America</st1:place> with the 82nd Foot before returning to <st1:country-region><st1:place>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> where he was elected to the House of Commons in 1784. He purchased his Majority in 1787 and served in <st1:place>Corsica</st1:place> from 1791 where he was wounded. He was promoted Lt-Col but fell foul of the Viceroy of Corsica and was posted to the <st1:place>West Indies</st1:place>, a virtual death sentence in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1798 he was a Maj-Gen in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> and commanded the southern column of government troops in Wexford at the battles of Lacken Hill, Goff’s Bridge, Foulkesmills and the capture of Wexford town.
<o:p></o:p>
In 1799 he commanded a brigade in <st1:place>Flanders</st1:place>, then the experimental training depot of the Light Infantry at Shorncliffe. He was knighted in 1804 and promoted Lt-General. In 1806 he fought in the <st1:place>Mediterranean</st1:place> and in 1808 in the Baltic. In 1808 he was appointed to command in the <st1:place>Iberian Peninsula</st1:place>.
<o:p></o:p>
Gen Sir John Moore was killed in action at <st1:place><st1:City>La Coruna</st1:City>, <st1:country-region>Spain</st1:country-region></st1:place> on <st1:date Year="1809" Day="16" Month="1">January 16th 1809</st1:date>.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
5th June 2009, 00:28
5th June 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

Co. Wexford<o:p></o:p>

<o:p> </o:p>The Battle of New Ross<o:p></o:p>

vvv<o:p></o:p>
The Battle of New Ross was fought in an attempt by the United Irishmen to capture the town and its strategically important bridge and thus break out of Co. Wexford across the river Barrow, spreading the rebellion into the western counties of Leinster and into Munster.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
On June 4th the rebels advanced from Carrigbyrne Hill to Corbett Hill outside New Ross. The rebels numbered approximately 10,000, the defenders of the town 2,000. The commanders of the United Irishmen were Bagenal Harvey, John Kelly and Fr Philip Roche. On the Government side Gen Henry Johnson and Luke Gardiner, Viscount Mountjoy.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
The action began at dawn on June 5th. The rebel forces were divided into three columns. One, 500 men under John Kelly, was to rush the Three Bullet Gate. The second to attack the Priory Gate and the third, the Market Gate. The defenders hadn't been idle. They had been expecting an attack since the fall of Wexford and had dug trenches outside the town, occupied by skirmishers and had placed cannon inside the town covering the gates and the streets.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
An emissary named Matt Furlong was sent to call for the garrison to surrender. Matt however was shot dead by the skirmishers outside the Three Bullet Gate precipitating a rush by Kelly and the men of his column. The attacks on the other agtes commenced but the men attacking the Market Gate retreated in the face of heavy enemy fire. The defenders seized the opportunity to sally forth with cavalry to take the attacking columns in the flank. However the columns stood and their massed pikes halted the cavalry charges. The attacks were renewed and the Three Bullet Gate fell, allowing the rebesl to stream into the town. They suffered heavily from cannon fire from secondary defences within the town. Fighting continued until noon when reinforcements pushed the rebels out of the town.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
In a grisly aftermath to the battle, the loyalists spent the rest of the day searching for and executing rebels wherever they were found. Hundreds of wounded were believed to have been slaughtered, some being burned alive when the buildings in which they had sought shelter were set ablaze. Government troops reported the rebel casualties at 2,806 men. In retaliation the rebels at Scullabogue set fire to a barn used to hold Loyalist prisoners. Between 100 and 200 people perished. Some 230 government troops died in the battle of New Ross, including Lord Mountjoy.<o:p></o:p>
<o:p> </o:p>
The rebels reformed at Sliabh Coillte but did not attack New Ross again. Bagenal Harvey resigned as Commnader in Chief to be replaced by Fr. Philip Roche. The failure at New Ross meant that the rebellion in the south of the county was contained within Co. Wexford.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
9th June 2009, 18:53
<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p>7th June 1798<o:p></o:p>
Co. Antrim<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Antrim<o:p></o:p>
vvv<o:p></o:p>

The United Irishmen of Ulster hesitated to act in support of the <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Leinster</st1:place> rebellion because it had been badly mauled in a government disarmament campaign the year before which also saw its leaders arrested. Losing patience with the prevarication of the new leadership, the United Irishmen met in early June and elected Henry Joy McCracken Adjutant Gen. He and James Hope planned to attack all garrisons in Co. Antrim and then march on <st1:City><st1:place>Belfast</st1:place></st1:City>. On June 6th the rebels took the towns of Portaferry, Ballymena and Randalstown and assembled at Donegore Hill in preparation for the march on <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Antrim</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Town</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Meanwhile the magistrates of the county met in the town under Lord John O'Neill to discuss how to deal with the rebellion.<o:p></o:p>
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On June 7th Antrim was garrisoned by 200 Yeomanry under Lt-Col William Lumley. Lumley position 4 cannon and his Yeomanry between the Market House and the Presbyterian church with their backs to the wall of <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Antrim</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.<o:p></o:p>
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About <st1:time Hour="15" Minute="0">3 pm</st1:time> McCracken led about 4,000 men into the town, advancing slowly through the streets. When they came within range they were driven back by artillery fire from the government lines. The smoke and dust of battle, and a blaze in the Scottish quarter started by the troops, obscured the garrison's view of the rebel dispositions. The cavalry charged an apparently routed enemy only to find many more of them in cover in houses along the main street and behind a churchyard wall. The cavalry was decimated by musket fire and pikemen at close quarters. The rebels advanced anew and began to drive the government troops back into the castle. In the fighting Lumley was severely injured and Lord O'Neill fatally wounded. The rebels were on the cusp of victory when reinforcements arrived from <st1:City><st1:place>Belfast</st1:place></st1:City>. The new men, assuming the rebels to control the town began to shell it and drove them back in disarray. James Hope commanded a rearguard action that covered the retreat from the town and prevented a rout. The victorious Monaghan Militia sacked and burned the town.<o:p></o:p>
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Around 300 United Irishmen and 60 Government troops died in the Battle of Antrim.<o:p></o:p>


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Groundhog
10th June 2009, 12:06
9th June 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Down<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Saintfield<o:p></o:p>
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On Saturday 9th June about 1,000 rebels attacked a house belonging to the loyalist McKee family near Saintfield, Co. Down. In a short fight several rebels were shot dead before the house was fired and eight members of the McKee family killed. When news of the attack reached the nearest government garrison, Col Granville Stapylton marched with 300 men of the Newtownards Yeomanry and the York Fencibles to punish the rebels. He also had two light cannon in support.<o:p></o:p>
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The rebels meanwhile, receiving word of the approach of the soldiers, set up an ambush on a wooded hill overlooking the military's line of march. A soon as the soldiers were in the killing zone the pikemen charged en masse down the hill and crashed into the flank of the marching troops. Within minutes 60 men were dead and the rest in retreat. Stapylton ordered his field guns into action to allow his men escape and killed about 50 rebels. <o:p></o:p>
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Co. Wicklow<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Arklow<o:p></o:p>
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Following the rebel victory at Tuberneering, the United Irishmen were presented with an opportunity to break out of Wexford. The government's troops withdrew from Arklow in panic and essentially left the road to <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City> open. Failing to march through that door the rebels lost the initiative. A force of 1,700 men under Col Francis Needham marched form <st1:City><st1:place>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>, reoccupied Arklow and fortified the town.<o:p></o:p>
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The rebels, numbering some 9,000 men commanded by Fr Michael Murphy, Billy Byrne, Anthony Perry and Edward Fitzgerald attacked the town on the afternoon of June 9th. They used the cover of gorse and hedges to approach the town in several columns and then, under cover of fire from cannon captured at Tuberneering, rushed the approaches to the town. The defenders had covered these approaches with cannon and musket fire. The rebels were decimated by the British fire. <st1:City><st1:place>Needham</st1:place></st1:City> then launched a cavalry charge to rout the United Irishmen but the cavalry was forced back by rebel pikemen. Several more attacks were launched on the town but the rebel will to continue in the face of mounting casualties began to disappear. Eventually near dark Fr Murphy died attacking an artillery position and the rebels withdrew under cover of darkness leaving 1,000 dead on the field. Government dead numbered 60 men. The defeat at Arklow broke the will of the rebels to spread the rebellion beyond Wexford. Boxed in to the county the government's advantage in numbers, supplies and freedom of movement meant that the rebels day were numbered.<o:p></o:p>
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Unknown to the rebels the government troops were low on ammunition. One more push would probably have see then enter the town and win victory. As <st1:City><st1:place>Wellington</st1:place></st1:City> said of <st1:City><st1:place>Waterloo</st1:place></st1:City>, Arklow was "the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life".

Groundhog
13th June 2009, 12:24
13th June 1798<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Co. Down<o:p></o:p>


The Battle of Ballynahinch<o:p></o:p>
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The United Irishmen were led at Ballynahinch by Henry Munro, a Presbyterian linen merchant of Scottish ancestry from Lisburn. Munro had only taken over leadership of the Down UI a week previously on the arrest of Rev William Dickson. After the Battle of Saintfield, Munro joined the rebels there and then moved to their camp at Ednavady Hill, near Ballynahinch. A couple of days later two British columns converged on the rebel positions from Belfast and Downpatrick. Gen Nugent, commanding the Belfast column, fired Saintfield as he passed through it.<o:p></o:p>
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The battle began on the evening of June 12th when the government troops occupied two hills overlooking the town and began to bombard it with their cannon. As darkness fell the government troops occupied the town. Some of the rebel leadership proposed a night attack on the town but Munro refused. When dawn broke the British attacked rebel positions on Windmill Hill but were repulsed. However Munro feared that the men on the hill would be surrounded and cut off so he ordered a withdrawal from Windmill Hill. Some rebels didn't get the order and were subsequently captured and hung. <o:p></o:p>
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Munro now concentrated his attack on the town where the building would render Nugent's cannon less effective. In house to house fighting the government troops were pushed back. The rebels hearing the retreat sounded on bugles assumed that government reinforcements had arrived and they themselves retreated. Caught in the open by cavalry and a target for the British cannon, the rebels were quickly routed. In the battle and subsequent pursuit about 400 rebels died for the loss of 40 government soldiers. Munro attempted to rally his men on Ednavady Hill. Almost surrounded and well outnumbered they barely managed to escape. Munro was captured a day later and executed in Lisburn on June 16th.<o:p></o:p>
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The defeat at Ballynahinch essentially ended the rebellion in Ulster. Rebel reinforcements that had been marching towards Ballynahinch from the west returned home and disbanded.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
19th June 2009, 16:01
19th June 1798
Co. Kildare
The Battle of Ovidstown
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Although the rebellion had started in Kildare it had failed to gain momentum in the county despite the fact that large areas remained under rebel control, including the towns of Prosperous and Clane. Priority had been given to limiting the spread of rebellion from Wexford and putting down nascent risings elsewhere. By mid-June the authorities felt able to begin reasserting government control in Kildare. On June 18th a force of 400 men <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:State><st1:place>marche</st1:place></st1:State> from Trim to engage the rebel forces at Ovidstown Hill. Ovidstown Hill is three miles south west of Kilcock, Co. Kildare and was the site of a rebel camp of some 4,000 men under William Aylmer.<o:p></o:p>
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Initially, <st1:City><st1:place>Aylmer</st1:place></st1:City> tried to set up an ambush along the route of the British advance by deploying his men in the ditches along the road. This plan was foiled by skirmishers deployed on the flanks of the body of troops who drove the ambush parties back. The rebels were now in danger of being ridden down by the cavalry. However the cavalry was slow in deploying as were the two field guns accompanying the troops. <st1:City><st1:place>Aylmer</st1:place></st1:City> rallied his men and ordered a charge on the government troops. The rebels however lost their nerve and merely deployed along a hedge where they were caught by the British artillery firing grapeshot. <o:p></o:p>
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Not daunted the rebels charged and almost reached the artillery lines in the teeth of heavy musket and cannon fire. At the crucial moment the government cavalry charged the rebel left flank. The rebels broke and fled pursued by the cavalry. About 00 United Irishmen died at Ovidstown as did 25 government troops. The survivors fled into the Bog of Allen where they eventually joined refugees from Wexford under Anthony Perry.<o:p></o:p>
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After Ovidstown the government troops retook Prosperous and sacked it. <o:p></o:p>
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William Aylmer survived the rebellion. He was eventually allowed go into exile and spent 17 years in the Austrian Army. He returned to <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> in 1819 and then went to <st1:country-region><st1:place>Bolivia</st1:place></st1:country-region> to fight with Simon Bolivar. <st1:City><st1:place>Aylmer</st1:place></st1:City> was wounded at the Battle of Rio Hacha on <st1:date Month="5" Day="25" Year="1820">25th May 1820</st1:date> and died in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Jamaica</st1:place></st1:country-region> on 20th June.<o:p></o:p>
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Groundhog
20th June 2009, 17:57
20th June 1798
Co. Wexford
The Battle of Foulksmills
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On June 19th Gen Sir John Moore left New Ross with 1,500 men to march to Wexford town. With the Wexford rebellion contained he, in conjunction with <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Gen</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Lake</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> marching from the north, was determined to crush the Wexford rebels. <o:p></o:p>
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<st1:City><st1:place>Moore</st1:place></st1:City> was supposed to be joined en route by the garrison of <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>Fort</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName>Duncannon</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. These troops however failed to turn up and, after a delay of a few hours, <st1:City><st1:place>Moore</st1:place></st1:City> resumed his march towards the <st1:place><st1:PlaceType>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName>Taghmon</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. As the troops neared Goff's Bridge near Foulksmills scouts reported a large rebel force advancing to meet them. The rebel numbers were estimated at 5,000 men. <st1:City><st1:place>Moore</st1:place></st1:City> immediately deployed the 60th Rifles to hold the bridge.<o:p></o:p>
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The United Irishmen were led by Fr. Philip Roche. Roche, seeing the riflemen deployed at the bridge led his men to the left of the road in an attempt to out flank the British troops. Off tehr oad the rebels were in cover of the fields, ditches and hedges. Outnumbered, the 60th was scarcely able to hold back the attack. <st1:City><st1:place>Moore</st1:place></st1:City> was forced to personally deploy his troops in line to meet the rebel attack. Once he had done so he was able to bring his artillery into play and the rebels were driven back field by field. However they did retire in good order and the battle was far from a government victory.<o:p></o:p>
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500 United Irishmen dies at Foulksmills along with 100 government troops. The battle left the road to Wexford open to <st1:City><st1:place>Moore</st1:place></st1:City> and he took the town the following day.<o:p></o:p>
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The Battle of Foulksmills is also known as the Battle of Goff's Bridge and the Battle of Horetown.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
21st June 2009, 09:00
21st June 1798
Co. Wexford

The Battle of Vinegar Hill
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By mid-June <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Gen</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Lake</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> had assembled some 20,000 troops north of Co. Wexford to invade and crush the rebellion in the county. The rebel leadership had assembled its army, numbering about 15,000 at Vinegar Hill near Enniscorthy. <st1:place>Lake</st1:place> formulated a plan to attack the rebel camp with three columns while a fourth attacked Enniscorthy with a view to capturing the bridge in the town, thus cutting off the rebel's retreat route to the west.<o:p></o:p>
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The battle commenced at dawn on June 21st with attacks on rebel outposts. The government forces had the support of several batteries of artillery and these drove the rebels back inside a shrinking perimeter. Counterattacks by the United Irishmen failed to drive the British back, the rebels being hampered by an over reliance on the pike as their main weapon. Eventually the government troops reached the eastern edge of the summit of Vinegar Hill. The rebels retreated to the west facilitated by a gap in the British lines where the column commanded by Gen. John Needham had yet to arrive in position.<o:p></o:p>
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In Enniscorthy the rebels were slowly driven out of the town. The government troops failed to capture the bridge and many rebels managed to escape. With the rebels in retreat the cavalry was unleashed in pursuit.<o:p></o:p>
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Between 500 and 1000 rebels died at Vinegar Hill for the loss of some 100 government troops. While the battle effectively brought an end to the <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Wexford</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Republic</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, the surviving rebels split into two columns and escaped from Wexford. One went into the midlands and the other to Wicklow where a guerrilla campaign ensued led by Joseph Holt amd Michael Dwyer.
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http://keithblayney.com/Blayney/images/VinegarHill1798.jpg<o:p></o:p>
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A rather inaccurate depiction of the battle with a regimental band to the front and a post 1800 Union flag.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
11th July 2009, 14:17
30th June 1798
Co. Wexford

The Battle of Ballyellis
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The Battle of Ballyellis was fought on June 30th in the aftermath of the Battle of Vinegar Hill. Ballyellis is on the Wicklow/Wexford border near Carnew. A column of rebels under Gen. Joseph Holt was attempting to escape into the Wicklow mountains. When a foraging party from the column was surprised and wiped out by a British patrol, a force of cavalry numbering about 200 was sent to destroy the rebel column.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
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Holts men had spotted the pursuing troops and organised an ambush on the road in the townland of Ballyellis. The ambush site was on a bend in the road bordered by a ditch and a high wall. The raod was blocked with wagons and a small force placed on the roadway to lure the cavalry into the trap. The government troops fell for the ruse and charged the apparent rearguard of the fleeing column only to be met with a volley of fire from 3 sides. In the ambush and subsequent pursuit the military lost over 60 dead.<o:p></o:p>

Groundhog
12th July 2009, 17:40
The Battle of Aughrim<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>

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12th July 1691<o:p></o:p>

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http://i95.photobucket.com/albums/l151/md24124549/Aughrimmap.jpg<o:p></o:p>
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Following the defeat at the <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place>Boyne</st1:place> in July 1690 the Jacobite Army had retreated behind the line of the river <st1:place>Shannon</st1:place> into <st1:place>Connacht</st1:place>, setting up strongpoints at <st1:place>Sligo</st1:place>, Athlone and <st1:place>Limerick</st1:place>. Here they hoped to receive assistance from <st1:country-region><st1:place>France</st1:place></st1:country-region> where James II had fled immediately after the <st1:place>Boyne</st1:place>. All of the rest of <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> including the south coast ports fell under Williamite control by the autumn of 1690. William had returned to <st1:country-region><st1:place>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> in September 1690 and left the army in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> under command of Gen Godert de Ginkel. The Jacobite army was commanded by the French, Charles Chalmont, Marquis de St Ruth. In June 1691 De Ginkel led a ten day siege of Athlone which he captured on June 30th. In July he led his army of about 20,000 men on to capture Galway. After passing through Ballinasloe his scouts met their Jacobite counterparts from St Ruth's army near Aughrim on the evening of the 11th July. There was a short skirmish before the two sides withdrew.<o:p></o:p>
The Jacobite position at Aughrim was quite strong and gave St. Ruth a marked advantage over the enemy. St Ruth had drawn up his infantry along the crest of a ridge known as Kilcommadan Hill. The Hill extended for a distance of almost two miles from north to south, rising to a height of about 400 feet. In front of the ridge was a bog. At the extreme north end was the village and the Castle of Aughrim, approached by a narrow causeway over the bog. To the south end lay the Pass of Urrachree, guarded by small hills. The ridge was lined with low stone walls and hedgerows which were improved and then used as earthworks for the Jacobite infantry to shelter behind. St. Ruth's main body of infantry manned those heights and trenches commanded by Colonels Dorrington and Hamilton. His left, commanded by Maj-Gen Sheldon, was anchored at Aughrim Castle, which was occupied by a regiment of infantry and two cannon commanded by Col Burke. In addition three regiments of cavalry (Luttrell's, Parker's and Purcell's) were located here. The Jacobite right, commanded by Lt-Gen De Tessé, rested at Urrachree where were placed St. Ruth's best infantry and most of his cavalry (Tyrconnell's, Abercorn's, Sutherland's and Prendergast's regiments) under Patrick Sarsfield (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Sarsfield). Here he also placed 5 of his guns. The strength of the two armies was about the same, the Williamites had 23,000 men and 24 artillery pieces, the Irish 22,500 men and 10 guns. The Jacobites were in position early on the morning of the 12th, a foggy Sunday. The fog did not lift until noon revealing the Army of King William.<o:p></o:p>
The battle opened with a Williamite assault on the Pass of Urrachree on the Jacobite right. Here, Danish, Dutch and French Huguenot troops commanded by La Melloniere, Tetteau, Nassau, and the Prince of Hesse attacked the weak flank of the Jacobite line. The attack failed after an hour and a half of bloody fighting and the Williamites were forced to take what cover they could to fight off Jacobite counterattacks.<o:p></o:p>
With the attcak stalled on their left, Ginkel and his commanders paused to hold council. Maj Gen Mackay proposed an assault on the centre of the Williamite line. 3,000 infantry advanced across the bog in the afternoon under cover of the Williamite batteries in the centre. Pushing up the hill under a steady fire they seemed to be driving the Jacobites back but a Jacobite counterattack drove the Williamites back to the bog.<o:p></o:p>
At 6.30pm 3,000 Williamite infantry advanced once more through the morass under cover of their artillery, and faced the hill in a vigorous attack on the Irish positions there. Again the Irish enticed them on until they were almost at the summit of the hill and then with a lightning counterattack hurled them into the bog once more. In this attack the Williamites suffered a severe reverse losing many officers. At one place only did the Williamites make any advance that seemed dangerous. A couple of regiments converged, and gained a foothold among some walls and fences near Aughrim Castle. <o:p></o:p>
Here the regiment of Col Burke found that their reserve ammmunitionwas the wrong calibre. The desperate men were compelled to use chopped ram rods and buttons from their tunics as bullets. Eventually the enemy was driven back. Gen Mackay decided to try one last time. He advanced with a body of cavalry along the causeway at Aughrim, where there was room for only a couple of horses riding abreast at the time. St. Ruth watched the advance from his position above, and exclaimed "Pity to see such brave fellows throw away their lives in this way." He sent word to Sarsfield to send up 400 horse but stay on with the remainder, and await further orders. St. Ruth had decided to lead this last charge himself. As he charged down the hill a burst of chain shot decapitated him. St. Ruth's body covered with a trooper's cloak was carried to the rear and buried later in Loughrea. <o:p></o:p>
With St. Ruth dead the Jacobites lost heart. The cavalry fled The Irish infantry under Dorrington, made a stand, but were compelled to fall back in broken formation. At the Bloody Hollow about 2,000 Irish were surrounded and slaughtered. The Williamite Army lost 2,700 dead, the Irish about 5,000, making Aughrim the bloodiest battle ever fought on Irish soil. <o:p></o:p>
After the battle Galway surrendered within days, leaving Limerick the sole town in Jacobite hands. <o:p></o:p>

cav
27th August 2009, 23:23
Narrow water , Warrenpoint, pay back time for the paras. 18 dead.

[MOD: Unless your going to go to the lengths that Groundhog does to explain the battles that have been fought on this Island, I suggest keeping your trolling off the site or you'll win a free holiday from here]

Groundhog
28th August 2009, 12:00
27th August 1979<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
The Warrenpoint Ambush<o:p></o:p>
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As Cav points out, the Warrenpoint Ambush took place on <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:date Month="8" Day="27" Year="1979">27th August 1979</st1:date>. It is unlikely that it was planned as retaliation for the Bloody Sunday killings which had occurred almost eight years previously. However it was retrospectively seen by Republicans as fitting revenge since most of the casualties were members of the Parachute Regt. A common piece of graffiti at the time was "Thirteen dead but not forgotten, we got eighteen and Mountbatten."<o:p></o:p>
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The ambush began when a convoy consisting of 4 trucks and a land rover of A Coy, 2nd Bn, The Parachute Regt, was hit by a 500lb bomb concealed in a trailer of hay bales near Narrow Water Castle, Co. Down at 1640 hrs. The rear truck in the convoy was destroyed and six soldiers killed. Assuming they were being ambushed, the surviving soldiers opened fire killing one civilian, an Englishman named Michael Hudson, and wounding another. <o:p></o:p>
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When reports were received of the explosion reinforcements were sent by 2 Para by road. A rapid reaction force was sent by helicopter consisting of medical staff and engineers and Lt Col Blair, CO of the Queen's Own Highlanders flew in to take command of the scene. Blair set up his Incident Command Point in the gate of <st1:place><st1:PlaceName>Narrow</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName>Water</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. The IRA had planted another bomb here in the gate lodge and this was detonated at 1712 hrs, killing 12 more soldiers including Lt Col. Blair and his signaller L/Cpl Victor McLeod.<o:p></o:p>
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Two men suspected of participating in the ambush were arrested by the Gardai in the Republic but subsequently released. Warrenpoint was the heaviest loss of life in one incident for the British Army in <st1:country-region><st1:place>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.<o:p></o:p>
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Fatal casualty list<o:p></o:p>
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<st1:place><st1:City>Lt</st1:City><st1:State>Col</st1:State></st1:place> David Blair, Queen's Own Highlanders<o:p></o:p>
Maj Peter Fursman, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Warrant Officer Walter Beard, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Sgt Ian Rogers, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Cpl Nicholas Andrews, 2 Para <o:p></o:p>
Cpl John Giles, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Cpl Leonard Jones, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
L/Cpl Victor McLeod, Queen's Own Highlanders<o:p></o:p>
L/Cpl Chris Ireland, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Gary Barnes, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Donald Blair, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Raymond Dunn, 2 Para <o:p></o:p>
Pte Anthony Wood, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Michael Woods, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Thomas Vance, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Robert <st1:country-region><st1:place>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Jeffrey Jones, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>
Pte Robert Jones, 2 Para<o:p></o:p>